Yes, that is possible.
Use a sector editor to first read the card/drive you want to use.
Then use Altirra and setup the emulator (This goes beyond the scope of this post....)
MyIDE+1mb firmware is loaded into altirra as "cartridge", (attached), select atarimax+myide
Load the image as media in your harddrive window (external MyIDE $D5xx) , or under device "add myide, add haddisk"
Done setting up.
Do what you have to do and redump the image to your media. (besure that you select the correct physical drive)
Beside this, you can use ImDisk (google for it) and mount a image-file as disk.
Then use the LBA-manager to drag-drop.