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Article #204 (214 is last):
From: xx004@cleveland.Freenet.Edu (Atari SIG)
Newsgroups: freenet.sci.comp.atari.product.8bit.zmag
Subject: Z*Magazine:  5-Jan-92 #200
Reply-To: xx004@cleveland.Freenet.Edu (Atari SIG)
Date: Sat Oct  9 16:20:22 1993



 =======================================================================
                    Z*NET ATARI 8-BIT ONLINE MAGAZINE
            "Z*Magazine" - The Original Atari Online Magazine
 =======================================================================
                                Issue #200
                             January 5, 1992
 =======================================================================
                      Publisher/Editor : Ron Kovacs
                      Assistant Editor : Stan Lowell
                      Contributing Editor: Bob Smith
 -----------------------------------------------------------------------
                  CompuServe: 75300,1642    GEnie: Z-NET
        Z*NET BBS: (908) 968-8148   BLANK PAGE BBS: (908) 805-3967
 -----------------------------------------------------------------------
                Copyright (c)1992, Rovac Industries, Inc. 

                                 CONTENTS
 
       * The Editors Desk...............................Ron Kovacs
       * Rumbles, Rambles, Rumors......................Stan Lowell
       * The 8-Bit State............................Chuck Steinman
       * Carolyn's Corner...........................Carolyn Hoglin
       * FCC Allocation Listing...................................
       * Structured Programming......................Michael Stomp
 
 
 
 =======================================================================
 * THE EDITORS DESK                                        by Ron Kovacs
 =======================================================================
 
 
 Here it is 1992 and Issue #200 of Z*Magazine.  A milestone in itself
 because we have returned after an extended vacation and head in 7 years
 of publishing for the Atari community.
 
 Z*Magazine was officially started in 1985 by Bruce Kennedy.  My
 involvement started in 1986 and the rest is history.  However, without
 the assistance of Stan Lowell, Z*Mag would probably never have been
 exposed and passed along to me.  Clinton Smith was also helpful in the
 early days.  I do not want to once again go through it all since there
 are older issues available that pretty much explain it all.
 
 Speaking of older issues, you cannot get them on GEnie.  Darlah Potechin
 the head SysOp on GEnie responded to this in email by stating that all
 of the non-accessed files are automatically removed.  I suppose since
 the older versions haven't seen a download in years, they have been
 removed.  However, I recently made a check on CompuServe and pleased to
 report that all of the original Z*Mag issues are still available in the
 Atari8 Forum.

 We are now officially bi-weekly!  The next edition appears in two weeks!
 
 
 
 =======================================================================
 * RUMBLES...RAMBLES...RUMORS...                          by Stan Lowell
 =======================================================================
 
 
 Well, the Chicago show is over.  Looks like everyone made out OK.  The
 'bad' news is that Atari sent two trucks there loaded with what was left
 of Atari 8-bit hardware in their warehouse(sigh).  For those who could
 make it to the show, there were some good buys.
 
 This makes it all the more important that you *DO* support those who
 still support our computer.  BUY what you use, *DON'T* pirate it!
 
 In coming issues, I hope to have reviews of the MUX from a SysOp's point
 of view.  One thing that readers have mentioned they would like to see
 here are reviews of the various BBS programs for the Atari 8-bit.
 
 Got something you would like to contribute to ZMag?  I have set up a
 password for ZMag submissions.  Although it is 'limited access, it will
 allow you to upload(free time), give you download access to the current
 ZNet publications on my system, as well  as let you leave me E-Mail with
 a 'regular password request'(containing your  name, telephone number,
 password, and age.  The 'ZMag Uploader' password on *MY* system is:
 
 PW: ZMAG
 Last four of phone number: 1234
 
 Blank Page BBS  @ 908-805-3967  300/1200/2400  - PCP-NJNBR
                                                -  Starlink Node 3319
 
 Coming soon: I will be networking a "ZNet Pubs" message base with other
 FoReM-XEP boards.  Your comments, etc.  will be welcome in the base.
 Details are being worked out, but it may have started by the time you
 read this article!  All FoReM-XEP boards will also be networking all of
 the ZNet publications (ZMag, ZNET, & ZNetPC).  Hopefully, both of these
 will happen by the beginning of the new year!  My next article will
 include a list of FoReM-XEP Bulletin Boards carrying the ZMag/ZNet echo.
 
 BrickBats
 ---------
 I found Andy Eddy's 'review' of online magazines which appeared in ZMag
 199 to be "curious."
 
 While Mister Eddy commented (in his apraisal of 'PSAN') and "lamented"
 on the "lack of information" for and about the Atari 8-bits, ZMagaazine
 was NOT reviewed.  It only received a passing mention (due to the fact
 that ZMagazine may have been indirectly instrumental in launching
 several Atari online publications), and on his comments about ZNET and
 STZMag (the predecessor to today's ZNet for the ST) and ZNETPC (for the
 PC).
 
 For those of you who may not be aware, it was ZMagazine that started Ron
 on the road to becoming one of the "czars" of online computer
 publications.
 
 While it is true that the road has at times been pretty rocky and
 sporadic for ZMag the past few years, we are 'still around'.  Even if we
 weren't, the old issues still contain much valuable information in them,
 and can serve as a good resource for Atari 8-bitters!.
 
 As I stated last month, new owners of the Atari 8 may have never heard
 of ZMagazine.  Indeed, some long-time owners don't know about us!
 
 An "honorable mention" would have been nice.  In my humble opinion, it
 should 'should have' been given.
 
 New Stuff
 ---------
 The Black Box's add-on floppy controller board was reportedly sold in
 limited quantities at the Chicago Show!
 
 The board will fit atop your Black Box, plug into the 20 pin connector
 and into one of the sockets.  The board will mount upside-down (chips on
 BB facing chips on floppy board).  It will cover a good portion of the
 Black Box.
 
 Two versions will be available.  One version will do 360k/720k drives,
 while a "deluxe" version will have 360/720/1.2/1.44 drives.  This makes
 the Black Box/Floppy Board the *ONLY* system available that can do high
 density drives.  There will also be an added "bonus" with the deluxe
 version (hmm, what could that be?).
 
 "Some" Black Boxes may require slight modifications for the floppy board
 to fit properly.  This is due to various manufacturing techniques used
 during the Black Box's life.  The board will not need its own power
 supply, but some of the earlier Black Boxes may require different power
 supplies.
 
 Price will likely be in the $100-150 range, but has not been finalized.
 
 The board will be capable of reading, writing, and formating Atari ST
 and PC floppy disks.  It will also work with the MUX from CSS, and
 presumably work with the Black Box upgrade chip also.  What I need to
 find out is if it will work with HD Backup Pro!  If it does, THAT
 combination will be TOP NOTCH!  By January, they SHOULD be available in
 large quantity.
 
 If you have a large hard drive hooked to your system, HD Backup Pro is
 the FASTEST backup program that I have seen.  If you have a BB, operate
 from multiple platforms and tire of 'floppy-swap elbow' you owe it to
 yourself to get this combo!  Imagine porting files between platforms by
 moving a floppy back and forth!  Heaven mustbe here and NOW!  Especially
 for BBS SysOps!
 
 Also, CSS has a NEW catalog.  If you have ordered from them in the last
 four months, you will get one automatically.  If not, then you can
 contact and request that one be sent to you CSS at:
 
 Bob Puff  04/27/90
 Suite 222
 2117 Buffalo Rd
 Rochester, NY  14624
 CompuServe Mail: 76702,1076
 GEnie Mail: BOB.PUFF

 Or you can call their BBS and leave Feedback requesting one with your
 name and address.
 
 Computer Software Services(CSS) has moved since Bob Puff acquired sole
 ownership.  The NEW voice phone number is: (716) 429-5639.  Their BBS
 number is still the same: 716-247-7157.
 
 Color Bobterm??
 ---------------
 The prolific and creative Tom Hunt, a long-time Atari8-bit supporter has
 something new again!  Here are the docs for one of his latest creations:
 
 Documentation for the CGS viewing system.  CGS stands for the Color
 Graphics System for Atari XL/E computers.  Color Graphics System (C)
 1991,1992 By Tom Hunt
 -------------------------------------
 The CGS viewing system allows you to view online color graphics, when
 connected to host systems that support CGS.
 -------------------------------------
 
 REQUIREMENTS:

 DOS
   Sparta Dos 3.2d, or
   Sparta Dos X.

 SERIAL COMMUNICATIONS
   Black Box, or  MIO, or  P:R: Connection, or  SX-212 modem connected
   via SIO.
 
 TERMINAL PROGRAM
   BobTerm 1.21
   (Others MIGHT work)
 -------------------------------------
 
 There are three .COM files contained in this ARC, as follows -
 
 CGSVLO  COM   2273 12-01-91 11:18a
 CGSVMED COM   2286 12-01-91 11:19a
 CGSVHI  COM   2315 12-01-91 11:20a

 Each one does exactly the same thing, but was assembled for one of three
 setups.

 SETTING UP FOR SDX
 The CGSVLO.COM program is for use with SDX. It was assembled at $1300.
 Your AUTOEXEC.BAT file should look something like this -

 CGSVLO
 LOAD COMMAND.COM
 X BOBTERM

 If you are using the SX-212 modem (hooked up via SIO), and SDX, your
 AUTOEXEC.BAT file shoule look something like this.
 
 PAUSE
 CGSVLO
 LOAD COMMAND.COM
 SX
 X BOBTERM

 If you are using any other kind of modem/interface combination that
 requires the use of some kind of external R: handler, just substitute
 the filename of your R: handler in place of the "SX" above.

 In both of the above examples, no CONFIG.SYS file was used.  The
 defaults of the SDX cartridge were used.

 SETTING UP FOR 3.2D
 The CGSVMED.COM file was assembled for use with 3.2d.  It was assembled
 at $1F00.  It MUST be the 1st file loaded after DOS initializes.  If you
 are using the SX-212 modem, your STARTUP.BAT file should look something
 like this -

 KEY OFF
 CGSVMED
 SX
 BOBTERM

 If you are using any other kind of modem/interface combination that
 requires the use of some kind of external R: handler, just substitute
 the filename of your R: handler in place of the "SX" above.

 THE CGSVHI PROGRAM
 This program was assembled at $2300, and is for special curcumstances
 where you want some kind of resident utility in lower memory.  Like
 Snapshot HD 3.0D.  If this is what you need, your STARTUP.BAT file
 should look something like this -

 KEY OFF
 SNAPSHOT
 PSIRD D5: /X=1111 /F
 CGSVHI

 HOW TO OPERATE THE CGS
 After booting your system with the correct method, as outlined above,
 set BobTerm's colors for white text on a black background.  Do this by
 pressing "J", then choose "1".  Then use the cursor keys to adjust your
 colors.  When done, press ESCape, and "3" to save the configureation.
 Now you are ready to call up a bbs that supports CGS.  Be sure to set
 your terminal program for ATASCII mode.  To switch in CGS, have a
 joystick plugged into the second joystick port, and push the stick away
 from you.  To deactivate CGS, pull the stick toward you.

 THE FUTURE
 At the time of this writing, CGS is in it's infancy.  Plans are to
 expand it to allow online joystick-controlled games, etc.
 
 As the CGS development system matures, you may see CGS graphics
 appearing on many different types of bulletin boards.
 
 FOR MORE INFORMATION ABOUT CGS, OR THE CGS DEVELOPMENT SYSTEM
 Call The Closer To Home BBS, at 419-368-4413, Conference #0.  Leave
 email to Tom Hunt.  Be sure to read the CGS convo in the message base
 for the latest news of developments.
 
 BOARDS THAT SUPPORT CGS
 Closer To Home BBS
 419-368-4413
 Conference #0
 300/1200/2400 baud 24 hours/7 days

 Shareware
 ---------
 From the Pacific comes a different way to display your SpartaDos X and
 SpartaDos 3.2 directories:

 ***********************************************
 DOCUMENTATION FOR WDIR.COM v.1.0   by Jon Melbo
 ***********************************************
 
 INTRODUCTION:
 Hello and welcome to my first release of 'WDIR.COM'.  Just what is WDIR
 anyway you ask?  Well basicly it is an Atari8 implimentation of the WDIR
 command available on (heaven forbid) MSDOS machines.  It stands for Wide
 DIRectory, and that is pretty much what it does.  It is meant to be used
 under SpartaDOS_X or 3.2x.  Instead of providing the detailed (often
 un-necessary AND space hogging) file information that the standard DIR
 command gives, it just provides the filename, extension, and size.  It
 does this in an organized columnar format which fits many more files on
 the screen at once.  This format often comes in more handy.
 
 HOW TO USE WDIR:
 It is fairly simple to effectively use WDIR.  On the CL, simply type the
 command WDIR, followed by an optional parameter.  The parameter is the
 drive, pathname, and file match specification.  For this version, only
 SDX users my exclude the parameter.  SD32.x users must include a valid
 parameter to make use of the external command.  Example follows:
 
 VALID USAGE
 -------------------------------
 WDIR D8:*.*
 WDIR D:>DVLP>*.M65
 WDIR D2:>UNFNSHED>*.ACT
 WDIR D:*.*

 INVALID USAGE
 -------------------------------
 WDIR *.*
 WDIR >DVLP>*.M65
 WDIR D2:>UNFNSHED>
 WDIR D:
 
 SDX users who do not include a parameter will get a directory of all
 files in the current working directory of the current default drive.
 Very convenient.
 
 TECHNICAL INFO:
 I wrote WDIR using a combination of Action! and assembly language.
 Although the program does not take up much memory, it requires that you
 have at least a 48K machine.  This is due to over paranoia on my part of
 memory conflict.  I plan to pull the two main segments of the code
 closer together in a later version.  WDIR uses memory from $2551 through
 $2F07, and $6000 through $607F.  In order to use the 6502's inderect Y
 indexed addressing, I found it necessary to use two adjacent page zero
 locations as a pointer.  The locations are $CB and $CC.  Use of thses
 locations may interfere with some applications, particularly with
 programming languages.  These locations are safe with both Action! and
 BasicXL, and maybe others.  I do know that their use is not okay with
 MAC/65.  The best policy is not to use the command while a language is
 currently active.  WDIR will work fine, but depending on how or if the
 application saves or preserves its page zero locations, you could
 possibly tweak something with the application.  For those of you
 wondering about using WDIR with no parameter, WDIR simply provides a
 "D:*.*" in the open directory code.
 
 Thus, SD32.x users will get a listing for drive 1, regardless of what
 the default drive is should they choose not to use a paramter.
 
 FINAL WORDS:
 WDIR is NOT in the PUBLIC DOMAIN, but is rather 'shareware'.  In order
 to encourage me to enhance this program, and even write new ones, I ask
 for a small contribution for my efforts should you find it useful to you
 in some way.  A contribution of $8.00 (I like the number 8) is
 requested.  You may freely distribute this software as long as doing so
 meets the following criteria:
 
   a) This DOC file with this message is included in the ARC file along
      with the WDIR.COM program itself.
 
   b) No form of payment is collected as a result of distributing this
      software.
 
 Please support Atari8 shareware software authors, they are all we Atari8
 users have left.  Don't cheat them.  User groups may pay a registration
 fee of $25.00 and allow all current paying (at time of registration)
 members to use the software without the need for individual
 registration.  Please send registration fee to the following address,
 along with your name, mailing address, phone number, and brief
 description of system hardware to:
 
 Jon D. Melbo
 PSC #2 Box 2288
 Hickam AFB, HI 96853
 GEnie J.MELBO1
 
 Until next time!  If you would like to submit a review, article, or a
 rebuttal (ANYTHING is welcomed!), feel free to upload to myself or Z-NET
 Online BBS.  I can be reached on my BBS (908-805-3967), GEnie(S.LOWELL),
 and on Z*Net Online BBS(908-968-8148, Forem ST Node 593).  Both of us
 are PCP node: NJNBR Starlink node: 3319
 
 SUPPORT YOUR LOCAL USER GROUP!
 SUPPORT ShareWare Authors and others who write for the Atari 8-bit!
 Support Z*Magazine!
 Support THOSE who support YOU!


 =======================================================================
 * ATARIUSER MAGAZINE - 8-BIT UPDATE
 =======================================================================
 
 
 The following article is reprinted by permission of AtariUser magazine
 and Quill Publishing.  It MAY NOT be further reprinted without specific
 permission of Quill.  AtariUser is a monthly Atari magazine, available
 by subscription for $18 a year.  For more information on AtariUser, call
 800-333-3567.
 
 
 8-BIT ALERT
 
 Wanted: 8-bit Atari's!  Dr. James Hooper is Director of Medical Services
 for an Alabama hospital for mentally ill offenders.  He's given his own
 800XL to the hospital, and patients are eagerly lining up to learn
 reading, typing, and computer literacy.  Funds are not available for
 buying more, and Dr. Hooper asked AtariUser to solicit tax-deductible
 donations of 8-bit equipment to expand his program.  Individuals or
 vendors: contact Dr. Hooper at Taylor Hardin Secure Medical Facility,
 1301 River Road Northeast, Tuscaloosa, Alabama, 35404, 205-556-7060
 (NOTE: THIS NUMBER WAS PRINTED WRONG IN THE OCTOBER ATARIUSER).
 
 Good news for GEnie users!  The hardcopy magazine LiveWire which is
 mailed to GEnie subscribers bimonthly, has decided to continue coverage
 of the 8-bit Atari systems.  This can partially be attributed to many
 8-bit subscribers taking the time to voice their opinion to GEnie,
 showing that LiveWire editors do listen to subscriber feedback.
 
 
 THE 8-BIT STATE
 Big Business on the Little System.
 
 BIG is better, right?  Well, as an Atari Classic user, you know that's
 not always true.  And business is just another area where the 8-bit
 Atari can and does make itself at home--if we let it.
 
 Famous books and screenplays have been written entirely on an Atari 800.
 An attorney friend of mine used his XL and an Atari 1027 printer for
 over a year as his exclusive system for preparation of Court filings and
 briefs.  And countless small and home businesses use 8-bit systems to
 easily and cheaply generate labels for mass mailings every month.
 
 Now, it's just as true that fewer people are using the small systems and
 more are using ST's and PC's to do these things, but that is, in some
 cases, simply because they have a different machine now and not because
 of some inherent weakness of the 800/XL/XE system.  For those of us on
 budgets or just those of us who know what we really need, the 8-bit
 systems remain a perfect answer.
 
 While the classic Atari 8-bit computer systems are written off by many
 as 'game machines', there are quite a few professional quality business
 applications available for the machines.
 
 One of the most popular applications for the Atari 8-bit is
 telecommunication.  Shareware and PD files can be downloaded from
 bulletin boards and commercial services such as GEnie, Delphi, and
 Compuserve by using a terminal program and modem.  Two of the most
 popular shareware terminal programs for the 8-bit are BOBTERM by BOB
 PUFF, and Express by KEITH LEDBETTER.  (Telecommunication was featured
 in the July '91 issue of AtariUser.)
 
 A BBS system is not typically thought of as a business application--but
 it can be an effective one.  Especially if you run a computer-related
 business, having an online information exchange system can be a huge
 asset for your customers.  An online catalog and ordering system can as
 easily originate from an 8-bit Atari as a more expensive unit, and the
 results are identical.
 
 Custom applications to aid a business venture are simple to program on
 the Atari 8-bit computers using the built-in BASIC programming language.
 Many owners have found it easy, educational, and fun to create a several
 -line program that creates a printed form or takes in customer data.
 The Atari, with it's huge range of color and graphic modes, is often
 used to generate advertising TV screens for in-store demos ("SALE: ONLY
 $29.99 TODAY!").  Similarly, in-house cable TV systems in apartment
 complexes or motels can use the easy and cheap 8-bit computers to
 present fixed or scrolling information screens for the resident's
 convenience.
 
 Another popular use for the 8-bit has been database management.  A
 program called MICROFILER by BLACK MOON SYSTEMS ($22.50) allows you to
 not only store and retrieve data, but also search and sort the
 information in various records.  Information in the database can be
 printed in any format, including mailing labels.  A similar program
 available from ROYAL SOFTWARE ($35.95) is called SUPER MAILER PLUS.
 It's menu driven, has help screens, and can support up to four single or
 double density disk drives.
 
 Any classic user with a printer can use a word processor.  Whether it is
 sending a letter to your state representatives, or a note to a friend,
 doing it on a computer will allow professional looking results every
 time.  Being able to correct typos and move text within a document is
 so easy you will wonder why it was done any other way.  In fact, word
 processing may now be the #1 use of personal computers in or out of the
 workplace.  While the 8-bit Atari has some limits on display (the 40
 column screen makes it more work to visualize the finished wide
 product), many quality word processors for the 8-bit Atari do feature
 work-arounds to preview the actual document.  My favorite word processor
 is the cartridge based ATARIWRITER from ATARI, which sells for $39.95.
 An outstanding shareware word processor is TEXTPRO.
 
 For complex mathematical calculations of many variables, a spreadsheet
 is the answer, and the 8-bit Atari has several to choose from.
 Spreadsheets allow you to make calculations on tables of data, and
 easily change the formulas, data, and the way that data is presented.
 The original spreadsheet was VISICALC from VISICORP and was introduced
 on the Apple ][, and later ported to the Atari and IBM systems.
 VISICALC is available for under $25.00 from several sources.  TURBOCALC
 from DATAQUE priced at $20.00 is a similar program, except it is on
 cartridge and will work with any DOS and disk drive system.  SPEEDCALC
 is available in the public domain and is adequate for many spreadsheet
 uses.
 
 Many of us also use spreadsheets just to easily make tables--the
 adjustable grid makes it simple to make tabular lists, and to move and
 add data as it changes.  Used this way, it is also possible to make a
 spreadsheet solve some simple database needs as well.
 
 The BOOKKEEPER from ATARI is a general ledger program including modules
 for Income, Expenses, Invoices, and a general Journal.  This package
 also includes a numeric keypad to simplify entry of numbers.  For small
 business management, this is an excellent system at a cost of under $20!
 
 Most of the programs listed above are available from B&C
 ComputerVisions, 3257 Kifer Rd, Santa Clara CA 95051.  They accept
 personal checks, MC, VISA, and offer COD shipments.  Their phone number
 is (408) 749-1003.
 
 TurboCalc is available from DataQue Software, P.O.Box 134, Ontario OH
 44862 for $20.00 and $4.00 for postage and handling.  DataQue accepts
 personal checks, and money orders.
 
  - Chuck Steinman

 BIO: Chuck Steinman is one of the more verbal promoters of the 8-bit
 cause.  In addition to writing for several Atari related magazines, he
 also helps SysOp the 8-bit section on GEnie, and develops products sold
 by DataQue.  He can be contacted on GEnie and Delphi at username
 DATAQUE, or Compuserve PPN: 71777,3223.
 


 =======================================================================
 * CAROLYN'S CORNER                                    by Carolyn Hoglin
 =======================================================================
 Orlando, Florida
 
 
 (This has been reprinted from the Mid-Florida Atari Computer Club
  Newsletter of August, 1991.)
 
 
 There has been some discussion on the BBS 8-bit C-nets about generating
 custom fonts and characters for printers with the ability to download
 them.  Since that's a special interest of mine as well, I decided to
 write about my experiences with the Star NX-1000 Rainbow.
 
 The NX-1000 series printers have the ability to print both draft
 characters and NLQ (Near-Letter Quality) characters.  In addition, you
 can create new characters and symbols which can be downloaded and
 printed interchangeably with the built-in fonts.
 
 Designing the dot data for new characters with paper and pencil is very
 tedious and time-consuming.  One could use graph paper (or draw the
 required matrix of squares), pencil in the required dots, translate this
 into binary data, and finally send the data for each character to the
 printer, using the correct preliminary codes.  But who would want to?
 
 Appendix C of the NX-1000 manual lists an MS-BASIC program to enable you
 to do your designing on the computer screen, and then automatically
 download the resultant characters.  It also enables you to maintain disk
 files of character data for future use.
 
 Unfortunately, this program does not translate readily into Atari BASIC.
 As written, it also requires more memory than is available for a BASIC
 program with an 8-bit Atari (any model).  Despite the huge amount of
 memory required, the program also lacks many desirable features of a
 full-fledged font-generating program.
 
 Even with all these problems, I was determined to design a script font
 for my NX-1000.  Loading up my BASIC XE cartridge, including the
 BASIC.OSS file, and using EXTENDed mode, I set my sights on writing a
 new character generator for use with the 8-bit Atari.  Some of the MS-
 BASIC seemed very similar to BASIC XE, but I soon found that the IBM
 computer's X and Y coordinates are the reverse of the Atari's, not to
 mention that the 80-column screen of the PC displays more than twice the
 number of characters than are shown on our 40-column screens.
 
 Many hours (read "weeks") later, after typing up what I thought might
 sorta kinda run on my 130XE, I was devastated to find that all 128K was
 used up even before the dimensioning of the essential arrays was
 completed, never mind actually RUNning the program!  After much trial
 and error, I finally succeeded in streamlining the code to fit the
 available memory, worked out the bugs, and eventually even added many
 extra features.
 
 The resultant program, together with my script font (which took about as
 long to design as it did to write the program), is now in MFACC's
 library.  The ARCed program and font (NXCHRGEN.ARC) is also available
 from the ATARIAN DOMAIN BBS in Orlando.  Documentation is included.
 
 Requirements for the program are a minimum of 128K memory and the BASIC
 XE language cartridge.  (I would have written the program in the public-
 domain Turbo-BASIC, except for the memory requirement.)
 
 If you lack these prerequisites, you can still use my script font with
 an NX-1000.  I have incorporated into the program a "printing to disk"
 feature that results in a file (NLQSCRPT.PRN) that can be copied from
 DOS directly to the printer (P:).  The printer will then print all text
 in the new font until it is turned off.  Sending the code ESC % 0 (no
 spaces) will switch to the built-in ROM font, and ESC % 1 will switch
 back to the downloaded font.
 
 If you check the lights on your printer panel, you will note that this
 file automatically sets Italics, so if you change to the ROM font, you
 will probably want to switch that off as well.  You can either use the
 code ESC 5 or use the printer's pushbuttons.  If you resume the script
 font and want to reinstate Italics, the code is ESC 4.
 
 An alternative to copying the PRN file from DOS is even more convenient.
 From AtariWriter Plus, LOAD the file NLQSCRPT.PRN.  Then while still on
 the menu screen, hit [CTRL]-S.  When you are prompted for a file, type
 "P:" (without the quotes).  When asked, "Replace existing file?",
 answer "Y".  Leave the printer on while you LOAD or CREATE your
 document.  When you PRINT your document, the downloaded font will be
 used.  To change to the ROM font from within the document, type [CTRL]-O
 27 % 0 (no spaces).  Use [CTRL]-O 27 [CTRL]-O 53 to cancel the Italics.
 To change back to the downloaded font, type [CTRL]-O 27 % 1 and use
 [CTRL]-O 27 [CTRL]-O 52 to reinstate Italics.
 
 If you have already LOADed or CREATEd your document and then want to
 print it with a downloaded font, just SAVE the text file, follow the
 above instructions for sending the new font to the printer, then reLOAD
 the document and PRINT it.
 
 You may find that sometimes you only want an extra character or two, not
 an entire new font.  If you are lucky enough to own BASIC XE, this is
 no problem, because the character generator program copies the resident
 font into RAM and only replaces the characters for which you have
 designed a new shape.  For instance, you might replace the back slash
 with a copyright symbol.  Do you need a check mark or a degrees symbol?
 Design these to replace other little-used characters.
 
 Have fun, and please let me know whether my program is useful to you.
 And I would love to see your new masterpiece character sets!
 
 

 =======================================================================
 * FCC ALLOCATION LISTING
 =======================================================================
 
 
 (This text reprint from the Mid-Florida Atari Computer Club Newsletter.)
 
 
 Frequency         Detail    
  (MHz)
 =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-  =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=
  
   .535 -   1.705  LOCAL BROADCAST - STANDARD NORTH AMERICA, AM BAND
  1.427 -   1.429  SPACE RESEARCH FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS
  1.705 -   1.800  FIXED SERVICE - LAND/MOBILE/MARINE
  1.800 -   2.000  HAM, AMATEUR - 160 METERS

  2.000 -   2.107  MARITIME MOBILE
  2.000 -   2.500  MARINE, COASTWISE

  2.107 -   2.170  FIXED SERVICE - LAND/MOBILE/MARINE
  2.170 -   2.194  LAND MOBILE SERVICE
  2.194 -   2.300  FIXED SERVICE
  2.200 -   2.300  SPACE RESEARCH FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS
  2.300 -   2.495  SHORTWAVE BROADCAST - 120 METERS
  2.495 -   2.505  TIME STANDARD
  2.505 -   2.850  FIXED SERVICE - LAND/MOBILE/MARINE
  2.850 -   3.155  AERONAUTICAL MOBILE - TRANSOCEANIC FLIGHTS

  3.155 -   3.200  FIXED SERVICE
  3.200 -   3.400  SHORTWAVE BROADCAST - 90 METERS
  3.400 -   3.500  AERONAUTICAL MOBILE - TRANSOCEANIC FLIGHTS
  3.500 -   3.750  CW, AMATEUR - 80 METERS, CW, EXTRA
  3.500 -   4.000  HAM, AMATEUR - 80/75 METERS
  3.525 -   3.750  CW, AMATEUR - 80 METERS, CW, ADVANCED, GENERAL

  3.700 -   3.750  CW, AMATEUR - 80 METERS, CW, NOVICE, TECHNICIAN
  3.750 -   4.000  PHONE, AMATEUR - 75 METERS, PHONE, EXTRA
  3.775 -   4.000  PHONE, AMATEUR - 75 METERS, PHONE, ADVANCED
  3.850 -   4.000  PHONE, AMATEUR - 75 METERS, PHONE, GENERAL
  3.900 -   4.000  SHORTWAVE BROADCAST - 75 METERS

  4.000 -   4.000  TIME STANDARD - NEW WARC ALLOCATION REGION 3
  4.000 -   4.063  FIXED SERVICE
  4.000 -   9.000  MARINE, HIGH SEAS AND INLAND WATERWAYS
  4.063 -   4.438  MARITIME MOBILE - SHIP/SHORE
  4.438 -   4.650  FIXED SERVICE
  4.650 -   4.750  AERONAUTICAL MOBILE - TRANSOCEANIC FLIGHTS
  4.750 -   5.060  SHORTWAVE BROADCAST - 60 METERS

  5.000 -   5.000  TIME STANDARD - WWV
  5.005 -   5.450  FIXED SERVICE
  5.450 -   5.730  AERONAUTICAL MOBILE - TRANSOCEANIC FLIGHTS
  5.730 -   5.950  FIXED SERVICE
  5.950 -   6.200  SHORTWAVE BROADCAST - 49 METERS

  6.200 -   6.525  MARITIME MOBILE - SHIP/SHORE
  6.525 -   6.765  AERONAUTICAL MOBILE - TRANSOCEANIC FLIGHTS
  6.765 -   7.000  FIXED SERVICE

  7.000 -   7.150  CW, AMATEUR - 40 METERS, CW, EXTRA
  7.000 -   7.300  HAM, AMATEUR - 40 METERS
  7.025 -   7.150  CW, AMATEUR - 40 METERS, CW, ADVANCED, GENERAL
  7.100 -   7.150  CW, AMATEUR - 40 METERS, CW, NOVICE, TECHNICIAN
  7.100 -   7.300  SHORTWAVE BROADCAST - 41 METERS
  7.150 -   7.300  PHONE, AMATEUR - 40 METERS, PHONE, EXTRA, ADVANCED
  7.225 -   7.300  PHONE, AMATEUR - 40 METERS, PHONE, GENERAL
  7.300 -   8.195  FIXED SERVICE
  7.335 -   7.335  TIME STANDARD - CHU CANADA

  8.000 -   8.000  TIME STANDARD - NEW WARC ALLOCATION REGION 3
  8.195 -   8.815  MARITIME MOBILE - SHIP/SHORE
  8.400 -   8.500  SPACE RESEARCH FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS
  8.815 -   9.040  AERONAUTICAL MOBILE - TRANSOCEANIC FLIGHTS

  9.040 -   9.500  FIXED SERVICE
  9.500 -   9.900  SHORTWAVE BROADCAST - 31 METERS
  9.775 -   9.995  FIXED SERVICE

 10.000 -  10.000  TIME STANDARD - WWV
 10.003 -  10.005  SPACE RESEARCH FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS
 10.005 -  10.100  AERONAUTICAL MOBILE - TRANSOCEANIC FLIGHTS
 10.100 -  10.150  HAM, AMATEUR - 30 METERS, CW ONLY
 10.100 -  11.175  FIXED SERVICE

 11.175 -  11.400  AERONAUTICAL MOBILE - TRANSOCEANIC FLIGHTS
 11.400 -  11.650  FIXED SERVICE
 11.650 -  12.050  SHORTWAVE BROADCAST - 25 METERS

 12.000 -  22.000  MARINE, HIGH SEAS
 12.050 -  12.330  FIXED SERVICE
 12.330 -  13.200  MARITIME MOBILE - SHIP/SHORE

 13.200 -  13.360  AERONAUTICAL MOBILE - TRANSOCEANIC FLIGHTS
 13.360 -  13.600  FIXED SERVICE
 13.600 -  13.800  SHORTWAVE BROADCAST - NEW WARC ALLOCATION
 13.800 -  14.000  FIXED SERVICE

 14.000 -  14.150  CW, AMATEUR - 20 METERS, EXTRA
 14.000 -  14.300  AMATEUR - 20 METERS
 14.000 -  14.350  HAM, AMATEUR - 20 METERS
 14.025 -  14.150  CW, AMATEUR - 20 METERS, ADVANCED, GENERAL
 14.150 -  14.350  PHONE, AMATEUR - 20 METERS, EXTRA
 14.175 -  14.350  PHONE, AMATEUR - 20 METERS, ADVANCED
 14.225 -  14.350  PHONE, AMATEUR - 20 METERS, GENERAL
 14.350 -  14.995  FIXED SERVICE
 14.800 -  15.350  SPACE RESEARCH FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS

 15.000 -  15.000  TIME STANDARD - WWV
 15.010 -  15.100  AERONAUTICAL MOBILE - TRANSOCEANIC FLIGHTS
 15.100 -  15.600  SHORTWAVE BROADCAST - 19 METERS
 15.600 -  16.460  FIXED SERVICE

 16.460 -  17.360  MARITIME MOBILE - SHIP/SHORE

 17.360 -  17.550  FIXED SERVICE
 17.550 -  17.900  SHORTWAVE BROADCAST - 16 METERS
 17.900 -  18.030  AERONAUTICAL MOBILE - TRANSOCEANIC FLIGHTS

 18.030 -  18.780  FIXED SERVICE
 18.068 -  18.168  SPACE RESEARCH FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS
 18.780 -  18.900  MARITIME MOBILE - SHIP/SHORE
 18.900 -  19.680  FIXED SERVICE

 19.680 -  19.800  MARITIME MOBILE - SHIP/SHORE
 19.800 -  21.000  FIXED SERVICE
 19.995 -  20.010  SPACE RESEARCH FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS

 21.000 -  21.200  CW, AMATEUR - 15 METERS, EXTRA
 21.000 -  21.450  HAM, AMATEUR - 15 METERS
 21.025 -  21.200  CW, AMATEUR - 15 METERS, ADVANCED, GENERAL
 21.100 -  21.200  CW, AMATEUR - 15 METERS, NOVICE, TECHNICIAN
 21.100 -  21.400  SPACE RESEARCH FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS
 21.200 -  21.450  PHONE, AMATEUR - 15 METERS, EXTRA
 21.225 -  21.450  PHONE, AMATEUR - 15 METERS, ADVANCED
 21.300 -  21.450  PHONE, AMATEUR - 15 METERS, GENERAL
 21.450 -  21.850  SHORTWAVE BROADCAST - 13 METERS
 21.850 -  22.000  AERONAUTICAL MOBILE
 
 22.000 -  22.720  MARITIME MOBILE - SHIP/SHORE
 22.210 -  22.500  SPACE RESEARCH FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS
 22.720 -  23.200  FIXED SERVICE

 23.200 -  23.350  AERONAUTICAL MOBILE
 23.350 -  24.990  FIXED SERVICE

 24.890 -  24.930  CW, AMATEUR - 12 METERS, EXTRA, ADVANCED, GENERAL
 24.890 -  24.990  HAM, AMATEUR - 12 METERS
 24.930 -  24.990  PHONE, ANATEUR - 12 METERS, EXTRA, ADVANCE, GENERAL

 25.000 -  25.000  TIME STANDARD
 25.005 -  25.010  SPACE RESEARCH FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS
 25.010 -  25.330  PETROLEUM INDUSTRY
 25.330 -  25.600  GOVERNMENT FREQUENCY
 25.600 -  26.100  SHORTWAVE BROADCAST - 11 METERS

 26.100 -  26.480  LAND MOBILE SERVICE
 26.480 -  26.950  GOVERNMENT
 26.950 -  26.960  INTERNATIONAL FIXED SERVICE
 26.960 -  27.410  CITIZEN'S BAND - 11 METERS

 27.410 -  27.540  LAND MOBILE SERVICE
 27.540 -  28.000  GOVERNMENT

 28.000 -  28.300  CW, AMATEUR - 10 METERS, EXTRA, ADVANCED, GENERAL
 28.000 -  29.700  HAM, AMATEUR - 10 METERS
 28.100 -  28.200  CW, AMATEUR - 10 METERS, NOVICE, TECHNICIAN
 28.300 -  28.500  PHONE, AMATEUR - 10 METERS, NOVICE, TECHNICIAN
 28.300 -  29.700  PHONE, AMATEUR - 10 METERS, EXTRA, ADVANCE, GENERAL
                   
 29.700 -  29.800  FORESTRY SERVICE
 29.800 -  29.890  FIXED SERVICE
 29.890 -  29.910  GOVERNMENT
 29.910 -  30.000  FIXED SERVICE

 30.000 -  46.610  BUSINESS BAND, GOVERNMENT
 30.005 -  30.010  SPACE RESEARCH FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS
 34.200 -  34.700  SPACE RESEARCH FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS
 36.000 -  37.000  SPACE RESEARCH FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS
 39.986 -  40.020  SPACE RESEARCH FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS

 40.980 -  41.015  SPACE RESEARCH FREQUENCY ALOCATIONS
 46.610 -  47.000  PORTABLE PHONES/BASE
 47.000 -  49.670  BUSINESS BAND
 49.670 -  49.970  PORTABLE PHONES/HANDSET
 49.830 -  49.890  BABY MONITORS

 50.000 -  54.000  AMATEUR RADIO - 6 METERS
 50.200 -  50.400  SPACE RESEARCH FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS
 54.000 -  72.000  VHF TELEVISION (CH 2 - 4)
 54.200 -  58.200  SPACE RESEARCH FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS

 72.000 -  76.000  MODEL RADIO CONTROL, AVIATION AND INDUSTRY
 76.000 -  88.000  VHF TELEVISION (CH 5 - 6)

 88.000 - 108.000  LOCAL BROADCAST - STANDARD NORTH AMERICA, FM BAND
 
 108.000 - 117.950  AVIATION NAVIGATION (TERMINAL VOR, ILS)
 116.000 - 126.000  SPACE RESEARCH FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS
 118.000 - 136.000  AVIATION COMMUNICATION

 136.000 - 138.000  WEATHER SATELLITE, GOVERNMENT, BUSINESS
 137.000 - 144.000  SPACE RESEARCH FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS
 138.000 - 144.000  GOVERNMENT (MILITARY BASES)

 144.000 - 148.000  AMATEUR RADIO - 2 METERS
 148.000 - 151.000  GOVERNMENT

 150.000 - 151.000  SPACE RESEARCH FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS
 151.000 - 156.250  BUSINESS BAND (POLICE, FIRE)
 156.000 - 162.000  MARINE, INLAND
 156.250 - 157.425  MARINE BAND
 157.450 - 160.200  BUSINESS BAND (POLICE, FIRE)

 160.200 - 161.600  RAILROAD (161.600 IS MARINE BAND)
 161.605 - 161.795  BUSINESS BAND (RADIO AND TV REMOTES)
 161.800 - 162.000  MARINE BAND (TELEPHONE)
 162.000 - 174.000  GOVERNMENT, SOME BUSINESS (RADIO AND TV REMOTES)
 162.400 - 162.550  NOAA WEATHER

 174.000 - 216.000  VHF TELEVISION (CH 7 - 13)
 174.500 - 176.500  SPACE RESEARCH FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS

 200.000 - 202.000  SPACE RESEARCH FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS
 216.000 - 220.000  MARITIME MOBILE
 220.000 - 222.000  LAND MOBILE RADIO
 220.000 - 225.000  AMATEUR - 3/4 METERS
 225.000 - 329.000  GOVERNMENT (MILITARY AVIATION)
 225.000 - 400.000  BOTH CIVILIAN AND GOVERNMENT.
 235.000 - 238.000  SPACE RESEARCH FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS
 272.000 - 273.000  SPACE RESEARCH FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS

 329.000 - 335.000  GOVERNMENT (AIRPORT GLIDE SLOPE NAVIGATION)
 335.000 - 400.000  GOVERNMENT (MILITARY AVIATION)

 400.000 - 420.000  GOVERNMENT (BASE WALKIE/TALKIES, PAGERS, ETC)
 400.100 - 402.000  SPACE RESEARCH FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS
 403.000 - 406.000  SPACE RESEARCH FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS
 420.000 - 450.000  AMATEUR RADIO - 70 CENTIMETERS
 450.000 - 470.000  BUSINESS BAND (POLICE, FIRE, RADIO AND TV REMOTES)
 470.000 - 890.000  UHF TELEVISION (CH 14 - 83)

 806.000 - 810.000  BUSINESS BAND (CONVENTIONAL SYSTEMS, MOBILE INPUT)
 810.000 - 816.000  PUBLIC SAFETY (SLOW GROWTH SYSTEMS, MOBILE INPUT)
 816.000 - 821.000  BUSINESS BAND (TRUNKED SYSTEMS, MOBILE INPUT)
 821.000 - 825.000  LAND MOBILE SATELLITE SERVICE (MOBILE INPUT)
 825.000 - 835.000  CELLULAR TELEPHONE NON-WIRELINE (MOBILE INPUT)
 835.000 - 845.000  CELLULAR TELEPHONE WIRELINE (MOBILE INPUT)
 845.000 - 850.000  CELLULAR TELEPHONE (EXPANSION, MOBILE INPUT)
 851.000 - 855.000  BUSINESS BAND (CONVENTIONAL SYSTEMS, BASE OUTPUT)
 855.000 - 861.000  PUBLIC SAFETY (SLOW GROWTH SYSTEMS, BASE OUTPUT)
 861.000 - 866.000  BUSINESS BAND (TRUNKED SYSTEMS, BASE OUTPUT)
 866.000 - 870.000  LAND MOBILE SATELLITE SERVICE (SATELLITE OUTPUT)
 870.000 - 880.000  CELLULAR TELEPHONE NON-WIRELINE (BASE OUTPUT)
 880.000 - 890.000  CELLULAR TELEPHONE WIRELINE (BASE OUTPUT)
 890.000 - 895.000  CELLULAR TELEPHONE (EXPANSION, BASE OUTPUT)
 895.000 - 902.000  LAND MOBILE RADIO (MOBILE INPUT)

 902.000 - 928.000  AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE RESERVE
 928.000 - 930.000  MULTI-ADDRESS PAGING
 930.000 - 931.000  ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY PAGING
 931.000  932.000  COMMON CARRIER PAGING
 932.000 - 935.000  GOVERNMENT/PRIVATE SHARED
 935.000 - 941.000  LAND MOBILE RADIO (BASE OUTPUT)
 941.000 - 944.000  GOVERNMENT/PRIVATE SHARED
 944.000 - 947.000  BROADCAST STUDIO TO TRANSMITTER LINK
 947.000 - 952.000  BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES
 952.000 - 960.000  MICROWAVE RELAY AND PAGING
 956.262 - 956.437  PRIVATE FIXED SERVICE - SIGNALLING AND CONTROL
 959.862 - 959.987  COMMON CARRIER RADIO SERVICE - WIDE AREA PAGING
 960.000 - GHZ1215  AVIATION SERVICES - NAVAIDS  DME

 GHZ1215 - GHZ1240  GOVERNMENT
 GHZ1240 - GHZ1300  AMATEUR RADIO, GOVERNMENT

 
 

 =======================================================================
 * ADVENTURES IN STRUCTURED PROGRAMMING - Part 2        by Michael Stomp
 =======================================================================
 
 
 II. TOP-DOWN DESIGN
 
 In top-down design, one does not start with the details of coding the
 program -- HOW things are done -- but with the over-all flow of the
 program -- WHAT is done in each module.  When, in the process of
 breaking the complete program down into modules, you reach the stage
 where each module performs rather simple tasks it becomes time to
 consider the HOW, the detailed instructions needed to flesh out each
 module.  Structured languages make this process very natural, and makes
 programming easier in four ways: simplification, clarity, modification,
 and portability.
 
 To illustrate, let us consider a specific example: a menu-driven
 program, in which the user has a choice of three operations to be
 selected from a menu.  You've probably used many programs structured
 this way.  In TURBO BASIC XL, the main program loop would be:
 
 DO
  EXEC MENU
  GET KEY: KEY=KEY-48
  IF KEY=0 THEN EXIT
  ON KEY EXEC PROC1, PROC2, PROC3
 LOOP
 END
 
 (Of course, you will need line numbers, but they can be anything.  And
 this code fragment would be preceded by statements to initialize,
 DIMension strings and arrarys, etc.)
 
 The procedure MENU would simply print the menu choices on the screen and
 prompt the user to select one.  The choice numbered '0' is to quit the
 program; '1' is to choose whatever is done by PROC1, and so forth.  (Not
 good choices for procedure names, but in a real program one would pick
 more descriptive names.)  The 'ON...EXEC' statement is what is called a
 'switch' statement, which switches control to the corresponding
 procedure.  Error handling is achieved automatically, ince anything but
 a 'legal' keypress is just ignored.  Many types of programs could be run
 by this loop.
 
 The simplification is obtained by the fact that we have gone from the
 task of writing one large program to that of writing four smaller,
 simpler programs; MENU, PROC1, etc., each of which would be broken down
 further.
 
 Clarity is obtained because each module is separate (although they can
 all use the common, or global, variables) and performs a single task
 which has been separated from the program logic.  Some say that, if a
 module is too long to be printed on one page it should be broken down
 further, but that is not a hard-and-fast rule.  But it is certainly
 easier to follow what a program is doing if one does not have to jump
 all over the listing, following a bunch of GOTOs.
 
 Modification is made easier because the processes have been separated
 from the program logic, and it is easy to see where to insert a change.
 For example; suppose we decided to add a fourth operation to the
 program.  All we would have to do is:
 
 1)  Write the procedure for the new operation and add it to the end of
     the program,

 2)  change MENU to print the new choice on the menu screen, and
 
 3)  add the procedure name, PROC4 say, to the ON...EXEC statement.
 
 Easily done, even if done months or years after writing the original
 program.
 
 To illustrate portability, let us consider how one would translate the
 very same program into another structured language, in this case ACTION!
 
 DO
  MENU()
  K=GETD(7)
  KEY==-48
  IF KEY=0 THEN EXIT
  ELSEIF KEY=1 THEN PROC1()
  ELSEIF KEY=2 THEN PROC2()
  ELSEIF KEY=3 THEN PROC3()
  FI
 OD
 RETURN

 Looks very similiar, doesn't it?  Besides the changes in syntax, most of
 which could be changed in a text editor using its 'global search and
 replace' function, the only major change required is due to the fact
 that ACTION! doesn't have a 'switch' statement.  However, the same thing
 is accomplished by the IF...ELSEIF...FI statements. (C, on the other
 hand, DOES have a 'switch' statement, called 'switch'.  The same program
 in C would also be very similiar.)
 
 Portability is an important concern to the Atari 8-bit programmer these
 days, following the demise of almost all our 8-bit magazines.  One must
 rely for information on algorithms upon magazines and books written for
 the general computer user, and such algorithms are usually printed in a
 structured language, such as Pascal, C, or a C-like pseudo-code.  It is
 a great help if one is able to translate these algorithms into our own
 language.
 

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                          Z*Magazine Issue #200
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