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                Welcome to the comp.sys.atari.8bit newsgroup!
 
 
                            Atari 8-Bit Computers
 
                       Frequently Asked Questions List
     ___________                                             _______________
    | ///////// |               _____________               |  |||||||||||  |
    |___________|              |             |              |  ||_______||  |
    |______/////|              |____[---]____|              | / _________ \ |
    |LLLLLLLLLLL|              |LLLLLLLLLLL ||              | LLLLLLLLLLL L |
    |LLLLLLLLLLL|              |LLLLLLLLLLL ||              | LLLLLLLLLLL L |
    |__[_____]__|              |__[_____]____|              |___[_____]_____|
        130XE                       800XL                          800
     ___________                                             __---------__   
    | ///////// |                                           | /  _____  \ |
    |___________|               _____________               | / |_____| \ |
    |______/////|              |____[---]____|              | ___________ |
    |LLLLLLLLLLL|              |LLLLLLLLLLL ||              | ========== =|
    |LLLLLLLLLLL|              |LLLLLLLLLLL ||              | ========== =|
    |__[_____]__|              |__[_____]____|              |___[_____]___|
         65XE                       600XL                         400
     ___________                                             _____________
    | ///////// |         ___________                       |             |
    |___________|        |/// /      |                      |             |
    |______/////|        |// /       |  /\___________       |=============|  
    |LLLLLLLLLLL|        |/O\        |\/ |LLLLLLLLLLL|      | LLLLLLLLLLL | 
    |LLLLLLLLLLL|        |-----------|   |LLLLLLLLLLL|      | LLLLLLLLLLL |  
    |__[_____]__|        |____O_O_O_O|   |__[_____]__|      |___[_____]___|   
        800XE                   XE Game System                   1200XL
              
 Additions/suggestions/comments/corrections are needed!  Please send to:
 
                        mailto:mcurrent@carleton.edu
 
 Copyright (c) 1992-1997 by Michael D. Current, and others where noted.  Feel
 free to reproduce this file, in whole or in part, so long as the content of
 that portion reproduced is not modified, and so long as credit is given to this
 FAQ list or its Maintainer, or the author of that section reproduced when
 given.
 
 This FAQ list is in a constant state of development and comes with no
 guarantees.  If you see any problems, I need to hear from you!
 
 Please refer to the latest version of this FAQ list whenever possible!
 Available via these locations and Usenet FAQ archives everywhere:
 
 http://www.faqs.org/faqs/atari-8-bit/faq/
 
 ftp://rtfm.mit.edu/pub/faqs/atari-8-bit/faq
 
 news:comp.sys.atari.8bit     news:comp.answers     news:news.answers
 
 Or you can always ask me for a copy at mailto:mcurrent@carleton.edu
 
 ------------------------------
 
 Subject: 0.1) Table of contents
 
  0.1) Table of contents
 
      Introduction to the Atari
  1.1) What is an Atari 8-bit computer?
  1.2) What can I do with an 8-bit Atari?
  1.3) What are some of the performance features of the 8-bit Atari?
  1.4) What is the internal layout of the 8-bit Atari?
 
      Usenet newsgroups
  2.1) What is comp.sys.atari.8bit?
  2.2) What other Usenet newsgroups cover the 8-bit Atari?
 
      E-Mail lists
  3.1) What is INFO-ATARI8?
  3.2) What is the Classic Computers List?
  3.3) What is ATARIPL?
  3.4) What is ATARI8-L?
 
      Public Domain/Freeware/Shareware Archives
  4.1) What is the University of Michigan Archive?
  4.2) What is the Boston Archive?
  4.3) What is the PVV Archive?
  4.4) What is the ClarkNet Archive?
  4.5) What is the Gatekeeper's Archive?
  4.6) What is the Polish Demo Archive?
  4.7) What is the Slovakian Archive?
 
      Telnet sites
  5.1) What is the Cleveland Free-Net Atari SIG?
  5.2) What is the National Capital FreeNet Atari Users SIG?
  5.3) What is the Victoria Telecommunity Network Atari Users SIG?
 
      World Wide Web pages
  7.1) What WWW pages support the 8-bit Atari?
 
      IRC channels
  8.1) What IRC channels discuss the 8-bit Atari?
 
      File Formats
  9.1) What's this UUEncoding stuff (.uu, .uue files) all about?
  9.2) What is an .arc file?
  9.3) What are the .DCM, .ATR, and .XFD file formats?
  9.4) What are the .XMO and .BIN file formats?
 
      File Transfer Solutions
  11.1) What are the best terminal emulators available?
  11.2) Can I read/write 8-bit Atari disks on an IBM-PC?
  11.3) Can I read/write MS-DOS disks on an 8-bit Atari?
  11.4) How do I transfer files using a null modem cable?
  11.5) What is SIO2PC?
  11.6) How can I convert my commercial boot tape into a cassette image file?
  
      Peripherals
  12.1) What 5.25" floppy disk drives are available?
  12.2) How can I use 3.5" floppy disks with my 8-bit Atari?
  12.3) What do I need to connect a hard drive to my 8-bit Atari?
  12.4) What kinds of monitors can I use with my Atari?
 
      General Interest
  13.1) What's the best DOS for the Atari?
  13.2) What hardware has Atari created in the 8-bit computer line?
  13.3) What are the power-supply requirements for my Atari components?
  13.4) What are the pinouts for the...?
  13.5) What BBS software can be used on the Atari?
  13.6) What versions of Atari BASIC or the CTIA/GTIA chip do I have?
  13.7) Which versions of the Operating System (OS) are there?
  13.8) What games support 4 simultaneous players on the 400/800?
  13.9) Why should I disconnect the 810/1050 power supply before connecting or
        disconnecting SIO cables?
  13.10) What is Omnimon?
  13.11) What is the difference between NTSC and PAL machines?
  13.12) What programming languages are available for the Atari?
  13.13) What is the Atari XEP80 Interface Module?
 
      Other FAQ Lists for the 8-bit Atari
  14.1) What vendors, developers, or publishers support the 8-bit Atari?
  14.2) Where is my nearest 8-bit Atari BBS?
  14.3) Where is my nearest 8-bit Atari user group?
  14.4) I'm new to the Atari.  How do I use this thing?
  14.5) Can I use an emulator to run my old Atari software on my new computer?
  14.6) What hardware upgrades, modifications and add-ons are available?
  14.7) What is the HARD-Interlacing-Picture (HIP) format?
  14.8) How do I access Usenet, FTP, Gopher, and WWW by e-mail?
  
 Reader-suggested topics, unwritten as yet: (volunteers?!)
    How fast of a modem can my Atari display keep up with?
         -with Ultraspeed roms?
         -with XEP-80
         -with any particular terminal program
 
    Video Upgrades
         -Adding chroma\lumi to 800XL
 
    How can I make my commercial boot disk (cart)
     into a load file or disk image?
 
    What is APE?
    
    Why does some European software (especially demos) flicker?
    
 ------------------------------
 
 Subject: 1.1) What is an Atari 8-bit computer?
 
 400   800   1200XL   600XL   800XL   65XE   130XE   800XE   XE Game System
 
 Here is a very condensed history of Atari, centered around their 8-bit
 computers.
 
 1972 
 Atari Inc. is formed by Nolan Bushnell, incorporated on Tuesday, June 27.
 Atari created the first coin-operated arcade video game with the introduction
 of Pong. The video game industry was launched and has shaped pop culture ever
 since.
 
 1976
 Warner Communications acquires Atari Inc.
 
 1977
 Atari launches the Video Computer System (VCS), giving birth to home 
 video game systems.
 
 1978
 In December, Atari announces the Atari 400 and 800 personal computers, using
 the 6502 microprocessor. The Atari 800 was code-named "Colleen"; the 400, 
 "Candy."
 
 The following are most of the team who originally designed the 400/800.
    Credit for providing this information for the FAQ goes to:
    Doug Neubauer (by way of James Finnegan, mailto:finneganj@delphi.com )
    Jerry Jessop, mailto:jjessop@ix3.ix.netcom.com 
    Scott Emmons, mailto:scotte@center.uscs.com 
 
 VLSI HARDWARE:
 Jay Miner - Creator and System architect, VSLI manager
 Steve Mayer - Also one of the creators - Partner in "Cyan Engineering"
 Lawrence D. Emmons - Also one of the creators - Partner in "Cyan Engineering"
 Joe Decuir - ANTIC and system and creator
 ???A French guy - ANTIC logic designer
 George McLeod - CTIA and GTIA logic design
 Doug Neubauer - POKEY logic design
 Mark Shieu - POKEY chip design
 Steve Stone - POKEY layout design
 Steve Smith - Technician for ANTIC and GTIA
 Delwin Pearson - Technician for POKEY
 
 OS PROGRAMMERS:
 Larry Kaplan
 David Crane
 Bob Whitehead
 Al Miller
 
 1979
 The Atari 400 and Atari 800 Home Computers debut at the Winter Consumer
 Electronics Show (CES) in early January.
 
 Jerry Jessop, mailto:jjessop1@home.com writes:
   "The first official small shipment of the 400/800 was on August 29th 1979.
   These were hand built pilot run units to Sears that needed to be in stock by
   Sept. 1 so they could be placed in the big fall catalog. The units were 
   placed in the Sears warehouse and then immediatly returned to Atari after
   the "in stock" requirment had been meet.
 
   The first "real" consumer units were shipped in Nov. of 79 and were 400's to
   Sears followed very shortly by 800's."
 
 These MOS Technology 6502-based systems run at a clock speed of 1.79 MHz,
 offering 128 colors displayable simultaneously, up to 320x192 graphics
 resolution and up to 40x24 text resolution in 8 graphics modes and 6 text
 modes.  Video may be displayed either on a composite video monitor in the case
 of the 800, or on a standard television for both systems.  4 independent sound
 voices are available through the audio output of the television or monitor,
 each with a 3 1/2 octave range, plus there is a built-in speaker for key-click
 and other programmable sounds.  The 800 has a second cartridge port and a
 full-stroke keyboard, while the 400 has a single cartridge port and a membrane
 keyboard.  Each has 4 serial controller ports and an Atari Serial Input/Output
 port.  Originally, both the 400 and 800 were sold with 8K RAM, but later most
 800's were sold with 48K and 400's with 16K.  Each includes the 10K Atari
 Operating System in ROM.
 
 1981
 November: 400/800's begin shipping with the new GTIA chip in place of CTIA,
 increasing the palette of simultaneously displayable colors to 256 and adding
 3 new graphics modes.  CTIA is totally phased out by the end of the year.
 
 Jerry Jessop, mailto:jjessop1@home.com adds:
   "The very first proto systems did have the GTIA, but it had some
   problems and was not released in the consumer version until 1981. The
   GTIA was completed before the CTIA."
 
 1982
 The introduction of the 1200XL in late 1982 marks the single largest advance
 in the 8-bit Atari system.  The 1200XL runs most software and hardware
 designed for the 800 and 400, but now runs a slightly more advanced 6502C
 microprocessor, and includes a full 64K RAM.  The single cartridge and monitor
 ports remain, along with 2 controller ports.  In addition, the 1200XL includes
 4 programmable Function keys and a Help key, built-in diagnostic and graphics
 demonstration programs, and probably the favorite keyboard of any 8-bit Atari
 computer.  Clicks previously outputted through the built-in speaker are now
 heard from the television or monitor's speaker.  The revised 16K Operating
 System offers many new features, including an alternate International
 Character Set.
 
 1983
 In 1983 Atari replaced the 1200XL/800/400 line-up with the new 800XL and 
 600XL.  These new machines include most of the features of the 1200XL minus 
 the Function keys and the demo program.  But now both the 800XL and 600XL 
 have the Atari BASIC language built-in.  In addition, these two systems 
 offer the Parallel Bus Interface (PBI), providing direct memory access to the 
 heart of the computer.  The 800XL contains 64K RAM while the 600XL has 16K RAM.
 
 1984
 Warner Communications sells Consumer Electronics and Home Computer 
 divisions of Atari Inc. to Tramiel Technologies on Monday, July 2.
 
 Atari Corporation is formed by Tramiel Technologies and its products marketed
 under the Atari brand.
 
    (Atari Games Corporation is also formed from the former coin-op 
    division and markets coin-op games under the Atari Games brand.
 
    Today Atari Games is an indirect, wholly-owned subsidiary of the
    Midway Games division of WMS Industries.
 
    WMS Industries Inc.
    3401 N California Ave
    Chicago IL 60618-5899
    USA
    http://www.wms.com/
    
    Midway Games Inc. (a division of WMS)
    http://www.midway.com/
 
    Atari Games Corporation (a subsidiary of Midway Games)
    http://www.atarigames.com/ )
 
 1985
 The new Atari Corp. delivered on its promise to advance the 8-bit Atari system
 by replacing the 800XL/600XL with the new 130XE and 65XE in 1985. The 65XE is
 nearly identical to the 800XL in features, minus the PBI. The 130XE, however,
 offers 128K RAM, plus the FREDDY chip, supporting the unique (but rarely used) 
 ability for the 6502C and the ANTIC to independently access RAM banks.  In 
 addition, the 130XE replaces the PBI port with the Enhanced Cartridge 
 Interface (ECI), continuing the powerful feature of direct memory access.
 
 1987
 In a change of marketing strategy, Atari introduced the new XE Game System 
 in 1987.  Despite its label, the XEGS is a true 8-bit Atari computer system.
 It offers the convenience of a detachable keyboard and built-in Missile
 Command game, while offering 64K RAM and full compatibility with the 65XE.
 
 The 800XE, a 130XE with just 64K, was released at some point in eastern
 Europe.  [WHEN???]
 
 1992
 Atari officially dropped all remaining support of their 8-bit computer line on
 January 1, 1992.
 
 1996
 On July 31, 1996, Atari Corp. became a JTS Corp. subsidiary. 
     JTS Corporation, with headquarters in San Jose, Calif., was founded in
 1994 to design, manufacture and supply enhanced-capacity hard disk drives for
 the notebook and desktop personal computer market.  JTS offers an innovative 
 line of ultra-slim 3.0-inch disk drives that provide higher capacity and lower
 cost per megabyte than competitive alternatives in the portable computer 
 market.  The president and chief executive officer of JTS, Tom Mitchell, was
 formerly the president and chief operating officer of Conner Peripherals and
 co-founder, president and chief operating officer of Seagate Technology.
 
 JTS Corporation
 166 Baypointe Pkwy
 San Jose CA 95134-1621 
 USA
 Phone: 408-468-1800
 Fax: 408-468-1619
 mailto:info@jtscorp.com
 http://www.jtscorp.com/
 
 Atari Corporation (a JTS subsidiary)
 http://www.atari.com/
 
 ------------------------------
 
 Subject: 1.2) What can I do with an 8-bit Atari?
 
 What can you do with an 8-bit Atari computer system?  Virtually anything you 
 can do with any other type of computer!  
 
 Programming?  Pascal, C, BASIC, Logo, Pilot, Forth, Lisp, 6502 assembler...
 Plus powerful unique languages like Action! and QUICK...
 
 Word Processing?  Try AtariWriter, Letter Perfect, Paperclip, TextPro, Bank 
 Street Writer, 1st EXLent, TurboWord, Cut & Paste, Letter Wizard, Panther,
 Superscript...
 
 Database?  Try TurboBase, TurboFile, Synfile, Data Perfect, MicroFiler,
 MegaFiler, Homebase, Super Data Base 1-2-3, Small Business System...
 
 Speadsheet?  Look at Syncalc, Visicalc, TurboBase, Calc Magic, Turbo-Calc,
 SAM Budget...
 
 Communications?  There's Express!, BobTerm, Kermit-65, Omnicom, VT850, 
 Chameleon, Ice-T, FlickerTerm 80, Term80...
 
 Graphics?  Print Shop, Newsroom, Blazing Paddles, Video Title Shop, Virtuoso, 
 Movie Maker, News Station, Publishing Pro, Awardware, Page Designer, 
 ChromaCAD, Rambrandt...
 
 Music?  Virtuoso, Music Studio, Music Construction Set, Songwriter, 
 Electronic Drummer, Music Painter, Music Composer, AtariMusic, MIDI-Track,
 Digital Music System, Chaos Music Composer...
 
 Alternate Operating Systems?  There's the Diamond Graphic Operating
 System; SpartaDOS X, the 64K DOS on a "supercartridge"; the S.A.M. (Screen 
 Aided Management) 80 column Desktop System; the Ultra Speed Plus OS; 
 the TurBoss! High Speed O/S...
 
 Hardware?  A plethora of upgrades and add-ons are available, realizing
 improvements in speed, memory, sound, graphics, storage media...you name it!
         
 Education?  Colorful graphics, exciting sounds and full-screen editing give
 rise to hundreds of quality educational software titles.
 
 Entertainment?  The 8-bit Atari has long been famous for thousands of great 
 games.
 
 If you want to do something with a computer, chances are you can do it on an
 8-bit Atari computer.  While slower than today's PC's, the 8-bit Atari is far
 less costly than any of these, is easier to program at the machine level or
 alter at the hardware level, and has been documented more thoroughly than any
 of the newer computing platforms.  The relative simplicity in design of the
 8-bit Atari also means that many people find the systems more reliable than
 their modern counterparts.
 
 The software for the 8-bit Atari is sometimes more powerful than on any other
 platform.  For example, some Bulliten Board Systems are still run on 8-bit
 Ataris specifically because the BBS software available can be better than that
 for any other type of computer.  There is a reason for the relative quality of
 software on the 8-bit Atari.  People program commercially for the latest PC's
 to make money; people program the 8-bit Atari because they want to -- they
 enjoy producing good software.  It takes a team of specialized programmers to
 develop a major piece of software for those other systems; with the 8-bit
 Atari, a single person has the chance to learn the entire system, thereby
 developing greater pride in his programming abilities and his final product. 
 The character of the programmer can shine through.
 
 The 8-bit Atari owner can take pride that his/her computer platform was
 developed years before the IBM PC or Apple Macintosh were even on the drawing
 boards, but remains as useful today as it was in 1979.
 
 For these reasons and more, the 8-bit Atari remains a popular alternative
 in today's home computer marketplace.
 
 ------------------------------
 
 Subject: 1.3) What are the some of the performance features of the 8-bit Atari?
 
 Some of this text by mailto:kendrick@zippy.sonoma.edu (Bill Kendrick).
 
 CLOCK SPEED:
 NTSC machines: 1.78979 MHz
 PAL machines: 1.773447 MHz
 
 SCREEN REFRESH RATE:
       60 times per second (Hz) on NTSC Ataris
       49.86 Hz on PAL machines
 
 ANTIC AND THE DISPLAY LIST:
 ANTIC     CIO/BASIC     Display     Resolution        Number of
 Mode #    Graphics #    Type        (full screen)     Colors
 ---------------------------------------------------------------
   2          0          Char         40 x 24            1 *
   3          -          Char         40 x 19            1 *
   4         12 ++       Char         40 x 24            5
   5         13 ++       Char         40 x 12            5
   6          1          Char         20 x 24            5
   7          2          Char         20 x 12            5
   8          3          Map          40 x 24            4
   9          4          Map          80 x 48            2
   A          5          Map          80 x 48            4
   B          6          Map         160 x 96            2
   C         14 ++       Map         160 x 192           2
   D          7          Map         160 x 96            4
   E         15 ++       Map         160 x 192           4
   F          8          Map         320 x 192           1 *
   F          9 +        Map          80 x 192           1 **
   F         10 +        Map          80 x 192           9
   F         11 +        Map          80 x 192           16 ***
   * 1 Hue; 2 Luminances
  ** 1 Hue; 16 Luminances
 *** 16 Hues; 1 Luminance
   + require the GTIA chip.  1979-1981 400/800's shipped with CTIA
  ++ Not available via the BASIC GRAPHICS command in 400/800's.
 
 GRAPHICS INDIRECTION (COLOR REGISTERS AND CHARACTER SETS):
 Nine color registers are available.  Each color register holds any of 16
 luminances x 16 hues = 256 colors.  (Four registers are for player-missile
 graphics.
 
 Character sets of 128 8x8 characters, each with a normal and an inverse video
 incarnation, are totally redefinable.
 
 PLAYER-MISSLE GRAPHICS:
   Four 8-bit wide, 128 or 256 byte high single color players, and four
     2-bit wide, 128 or 256 byte high single color missiles are available.
     A mode to combine the 4 missiles into a 5th 8-bit wide player is also
     available, as is a mode to XOR colors or blacken out colors when players
     overlap (good for making three colors out of two players!)  Players
     and missiles have adjustable priority and collision detection.
 
 DISPLAY LIST INTERRUPTS (DLI's):
   Screen modes can be mixed (by lines) down the screen using the Display
     List - a program which is executed by the ANTIC graphics chip every
     screen refresh:
 
   All other screen attributes (color, player/missile horizontal position,
     screen width, player/missile/playfield priority, etc.) can be ajusted
     at any point down the screen via DLI's.
 
 SCROLLING:
   Fine scrolling (both vertical and horizontal) can be enabled on any
     line on the screen.
 
 SOUND:
   Four voices of 8-bit pitch-resolution, 4-bit volume-resolution,
     8-distortion sound can be produced.  2 voices (1 and 2, and/or 3 and 4)
     can be combined to make 16-bit pitch-resolution.  Also 4-bit volume-only
     modes can be enabled for digitally sampled sound replay.
 
   A fifth "voice" is produced by the internal speaker on Atari 400/800's
     (for keyclick and buzzer) and in the XL's and XE's this was
     (fortunately!) rerouted through the normal audio output, and the
     keyclick can be disabled.
 
 ------------------------------
 
 Subject: 1.4) What is the internal layout of the 8-bit Atari?
 
 The following text was written by Chris Crawford and appears in De Re
 Atari (Atari#APX-90008), a book published and copyright by Atari, Inc.,
 1981-1982.  It has been very slightly modified here for generality.
 
      "The internal layout of the Atari 8-bit computer is very different
 from other systems.  It of course has a microprocessor (a 6502), RAM,
 ROM, and a (PIA).  However, it also has three special-purpose (LSI) chips
 known as ANTIC, GTIA, and POKEY.  These chips were designed by Atari
 engineers primarily to take much of the burden of housekeeping off of the
 6502, thereby freeing the 6502 to concentrate on computations.  While
 they were at it, they designed a great deal of power into these chips.
 Each of these chips is almost as big (in terms of silicon area) as a
 6502, so the three of them together provide a tremendous amount of
 power.  Mastering the Atari 8-bit computers is primarily a matter of
 mastering these three chips.
 
      ANTIC ("Alpha-Numeric Television Interface Circuit") is a microprocessor 
 dedicated to the television display.  It is a true microprocessor; it has an
 instruction set, a program (called the display list), and data.  The display
 list and the display data are written into RAM by the 6502.  ANTIC retrieves
 this information from RAM using direct memory access (DMA).  It processes the
 higher level instructions in the display list and translates these instructions
 into a real-time stream of simple instructions to GTIA.
 
       CTIA ("Color Television Interface Adapter") / GTIA ("George's Television
 Interface Adapter") is a television interface chip.  ANTIC directly controls
 most of GTIA's operations, but the 6502 can be programmed to intercede and
 control some or all of GTIA's functions.  GTIA converts the digital
 commands from ANTIC (or the 6502) into the signal that goes to the
 television.  GTIA also adds some factors of its own, such as color
 values, player-missle graphics, and collision detection.
 
      POKEY is a digital input/output (I/O) chip.  It handles such
 disparate tasks as the serial I/O bus, audio generation, keyboard scan,
 and random number generation.  It also digitizes the resistive paddle
 inputs and controls maskable interrupt (IRQ) requests from peripherals.
 
      All four of these LSI chips function simultaneously.  Careful
 separation of their functions in the design phase has minimized conflicts
 between the chips.  The only hardware level conflict between any two
 chips in the system occurs when ANTIC needs to use the address and data
 buses to fetch its display information.  To do this, it halts the 6502
 and takes control of the buses."
 
 The 130XE and XEGS contain a small additional LSI called FREDDY, a RAM
 address multiplexer.  According to mailto:sup8pdct@closer.brisnet.org.au
 (James Bradford), "FREDDY is a type of memory controller.  It takes the
 address and clock from the CPU and multiplexes it with the appropriate timings
 and signals to use DYNAMIC memory.  FREDDY also buffers the system clock
 crystal and divides it down then feeds that to GTIA.  The XEGS has a FREDDY
 but it doesn't have the extended RAM.  Even if it did, you would still need
 the chip that does the REAL bank switching.  It is a small 16-pin chip
 (Atari/Best Electronics catalog number CO25953: rev9/page 42).  It gets RAS
 from FREDDY, the bank select bits from PIA, A14, A15 and the 6502 halt signal
 to control which bank of 8 chips RAS goes to.  A14 and A15 then go to FREDDY
 for the address range of the extra memory bank (or normal address range with
 no bank switching).  The ANTIC/6502 select bits in combination with the 6502
 halt line, control the switching of the PIA bank number bits to A14/A15 and
 which bank of memory RAS goes to.  Why people say FREDDY does the bank
 switching is beyond me.  An 800XL can look like a 130XE with that 16-pin chip
 installed (That's right NO FREDDY) and an extra 8 RAM chips."
 
 
 Hardware Arrangement (With thanks to mailto:peter@soemtron.sb.sub.de (Peter))
 
                   ->                    
 +---------------------------------------+
 |            +------------+             |
 |            | CPU(6502C) |         +-------+
 |            +------------+      <- |  I/O- |
 |                  |     +----------|release|
 |                 +-+    |          +-------+
 | +---------+<-   |p|    |               |
 | |   MMU   |-----| |    | <-+---------+-|----------+----------+
 *-| memory- |     |r|    *---|   PIA   | | (trigger)|Controller|====\
 | |managment|-----|-+--------| (6520)  | |+---------|   Ports  |====/
 | +---------+<-   |o| -> |   +---------+-|-+  <-->  +----------+
 |                 | |    |               |||           |    |
 |   +-----+       |c|    | <-+---------+ |||           |(lightpen)
 |   | RAM |<-A/D  | |    *---|  ANTIC  | |||           |    |
 *---|8-128|-------|e|----|---|(2nd CPU)|---------------+    |
 |   |Kbyte|->D    | | -> |   +---------+ ||| +---------------
 |   +-----+       |s|    |       ||      ||| |
 |                 | |    | <-+---------+-|||--------+(screen)
 |  +-------+      |s|    *---|  GTIA   |-|+| |      |
 |  | Atari |<-A   | |----|---|  /CTIA  | | | | +----------+   +-----------+   
 |  | BASIC |------|o| -> |   +---------+ | | | | summary  |===| modulator |
 *--|8 Kbyte|->D   | |    |               | | | |connection|===| ^^^^^^^^^ |
 |  |  ROM  |      |r|    | <-+---------+ | | | +----------+   +-----------+ 
 |  +-------+      | |    +---|  POKEY  |-|-|-+      |(sound)        |
 |                 | |--------|         |-|-|--------+               |
 |  +-------+      |b| ->     +---------+ | +----------+             |
 |  |AtariOS|<-A   | |                 |  |            |             |
 *--|10/16Kb|------|u|                 +--|----------+ |         tv/monitor    
 |  |  ROM  |->D   | +-----------------   |          | |         **********
 |  +-------+      |s|              | |   |          | |
 |                 | |              | |   |          | |
 |                 +-+              +-+   |          | |
 |                  |                |    |          | |
 +--------------*---|------------*---|    |          | |
                |   |            |   |    |          | |
              +-----------+    +-----------+    +------------+
              |ParallelBus|    | Cartridge |    |   Serial   |
              |Interface/ |    |   Slot    |    |Input/Output|
              | Enhanced  |    |    ROM    |    |    (SIO)   |
              | Cartridge |    +-----------+    +------------+
              | Interface |          |                |
              +-----------+          |                |
                    |                |                |
         - memory expansion    -cartridge with   - disk drive
         - Z80 card             programs         - printer
         - 80 char card         (games , dos )   - modem
 
 NOTES
  * RAM: 400/800:8/16/48K,1200XL/800XL/65XE/800XE/XEGS:64K,600XL:16K,130XE:128K
  * ROM: 400/800:10K OS, 1200XL:16K OS, all others:16K OS + 8K Atari BASIC
  * CPU: 400/800:6502, all others:6502C
  * 800 includes two Cartridge Slots, all others include one
  * early release 400/800 have CTIA instead of GTIA
  * 400/800 have 4 Controller Ports, all others have 2
  * PBI is on 600XL/800XL only
  * ECI is on 130XE/800XE only
  
 ------------------------------
 
 Subject: 2.1) What is comp.sys.atari.8bit?
 
 news:comp.sys.atari.8bit is the unmoderated Usenet newsgroup for discussion
 about the Atari 8-bit family of computers, including the 400, 800, 1200XL,
 600XL, 800XL, 65XE, 130XE, 800XE and the XE Game System!
 
 comp.sys.atari.8bit was born around 1986 when the earlier comp.sys.atari
 newsgroup was split into comp.sys.atari.8bit and comp.sys.atari.st.
 
 Large binary posts do not belong in unmoderated discussion groups like
 comp.sys.atari.8bit.  If you wish to share PD/freeware/shareware, use 
 alt.binaries.atari and alt.binaries.atari.d or upload the software to the
 University of Michigan Atari Archive.
 
 To the best of my knowledge, there is no charter for comp.sys.atari.8bit,
 presumably because the custom of drafting charters for new newsgroups did not
 exist at that time.
 
 ------------------------------
 
 Subject: 2.2) What other Usenet newsgroups cover the 8-bit Atari?
 
 news:comp.sys.atari.advocacy
 Opinionated discussions about Atari computers.  Unmoderated.
 
 news:comp.sys.atari.announce
 Announcements related to Atari computers.  Dead newsgroup?
 Moderated by Yat Siu, mailto:lexicor@world.std.com
 
 news:comp.sys.atari.programmer
 Programming Atari computers.  Unmoderated.
 
 news:rec.games.video.classic
 Orphan home video game systems.  Unmoderated.
 
 news:comp.emulators.misc
 Emulating one kind of computer on another.  Unmoderated.
 
 news:comp.emulators.announce
 Announcements related to computer emulators.
 Moderated by Qualcomm, mailto:emulators-request@qualcomm.com
 
 news:alt.binaries.atari
 uuencoded software for Atari computers.  Unmoderated.
 
 news:alt.binaries.atari.d
 Descriptions/discussions on software posted on alt.binaries.atari. Unmoderated.
 
 news:alt.binaries.comp.atari8bit
 uuencoded software just for the 8-bit Atari.  Not widely available.
 
 ------------------------------
 
 Subject: 3.1) What is INFO-ATARI8?
 
 INFO-ATARI8 is an e-mail list for discussion about the Atari 8-bit family of
 computers.
 
 To subscribe to INFO-ATARI8, send a message to:
      mailto:listserv@vm.marist.edu
 that says:
      subscribe info-atari8
 
 INFO-ATARI8 is moderated by mailto:snyder10@MAILHOST.TCS.TULANE.EDU (Mike Todd)
 
 INFO-ATARI8 was created on December 9, 1986.
 
 ------------------------------
 
 Subject: 3.2) What is the Classic Computers List?
 
 The Classic Computers List is a discussion list for people who
 collect/preserve/restore old computers of any kind.  If you would like more
 info you can find it at http://weber.u.washington.edu/~bcw/ccl.html .
 
 If you don't have access to the web, then send an e-mail to
 mailto:bill@booster.u.washington.edu (Bill Whitson, ClassicCmp ListOp).
 
 On the web site you'll find information on how to subscribe in addition to the
 two ClassicCmp FAQs. If you decide to subscribe, please read all three
 documents first.
 
 ------------------------------
 
 Subject: 3.3) What is ATARIPL?
 
 From: Wojciech Hartman 
 Date: Saturday, March 15, 1997  3:51 AM
 
 I am proud to announce that there is a mailing list "ataripl" for all
 polish-speaking Atari users and enthusiasts. 
 
 To subscribe the lists you have to send an email to
 mailto:majordomo@piwo.bl.pg.gda.pl containing a line "subscribe ataripl". 
 
 ------------------------------
 
 Subject: 3.4) What is ATARI8-L?
 
 To subscribe, you should send the message for 
 mailto:majordomo@zwieracz.psych.uw.edu.pl with the line:
 
 subscribe atari8-l 
 
 in the body (not the subject) of the message.
 
 ------------------------------
 
 Subject: 4.1) What is the University of Michigan Archive?
 
 The University of Michigan (UMich) Software Archives hold a huge number of
 files for many computing platforms, including the Atari 8-bit computers.  For
 more information:
 
 Bill Kendrick, mailto:kendrick@zippy.sonoma.edu (8-bit Atari files)
 Mickey Boyd, mailto:boydm@atari.archive.umich.edu (the entire Atari Archive)
 Michael Dautermann, mailto:myke@umich.edu (the entire UMich Software Archives)
 
 Downloading
 -----------
 There are numerous methods available for downloading files from the UMich
 Archive.  The Archivists request you use these mechanisms in this order of
 preference:
 
 1) The number one way to get into the UMich archives is via AFS. If you have
 AFS, all our files are kept in the directory
 "/afs/umich.edu/group/itd/archive". If you have AFS, PLEASE USE IT! 
 Specifically, use:
 
 file:///afs/umich.edu/group/itd/archive/atari/8bit/
 
 2) Gophering to gopher.archive.umich.edu and looking under the "Software
 Archives" choice.  Specifically, use:
 
 gopher://gopher.archive.umich.edu:7055/11/atari/8bit/
 
 There are also mirror Gopher servers:
 gopher://wuarchive.wustl.edu:70/11/systems/atari/umich.edu/8bit/
 gopher://sunsite.doc.ic.ac.uk:70/1/0-Most-Packages/atari/umich/8bit/
 gopher://gopher.orst.edu:70/11/g-i-s/computer/zftparea/mirrors/archive.umich.edu/atari/8bit
 
 3) The WWW interface is fine, at this point.  http://www.umich.edu/~archive/
 Specifically, use:
 
 http://www.umich.edu/~archive/atari/8bit/
 
 A mirror web site:
 http://sunsite.doc.ic.ac.uk/computing/systems/atari/umich/8bit/
 
 4) FTPing to atari.archive.umich.edu and looking in the "8bit" subdirectory.
 Specifically, use:
 
 ftp://atari.archive.umich.edu/atari/8bit/
 
 The atari.archive.umich.edu FTP site is chronically overloaded, but there are
 several mirror sites which are all updated from the home site regularly:
 ftp://wuarchive.wustl.edu/systems/atari/umich.edu/8bit/
 ftp://sunsite.doc.ic.ac.uk/computing/systems/atari/umich/8bit/
 ftp://info2.rus.uni-stuttgart.de/afs/umich.edu/group/itd/archive/atari/8bit/
 ftp://ftp.orst.edu/pub/mirrors/archive.umich.edu/atari/8bit/
 ftp://barnone.citi.umich.edu/atari/8bit/  ( <-- RECOMMENDED )
 ftp://ftp.kendall.mdcc.edu/pub/atari/umich.edu/8bit/
 ftp://ftp.toad.net/pub/umich/8bit/
 
 Brief FTP tips:
  - user name is "anonymous"; password is your e-mail address
  - Remember to set file type to BINARY when downloading non-text files
    (.arc, .com, .dcm, etc.) by FTP.
 
 5) E-Mail <-> FTP gateways.  See the section of this FAQ list entitled "How can
 I retrieve files from FTP sites by e-mail?"
 
 Uploading
 ---------
 General uploading tips:
  - No uploads may be made to the Archive's mirror sites.
  - Please also upload a short text file describing what your upload is.  You
    might also suggest what permanent 8bit subdirectory you'd like your file to
    end up in.
  - Note that the 8bit/New directory is "write-only."
 
 1) upload via AFS:
 Just copy files into file:///afs/umich.edu/group/itd/archive/atari/8bit/New/
 
 2) upload via FTP:
 FTP to atari.archive.umich.edu, cd into "8bit/New", and upload your files.
 
 Brief FTP tips:
  - user name is "anonymous"; password is your e-mail address
  - Remember to set file type to BINARY when downloading non-text files
    (.arc, .com, .dcm, etc.) by FTP.
 
 3) upload via E-Mail:
 Simply uuencode the file and mail it to mailto:kendrick@zippy.sonoma.edu 
 (Bill Kendrick).
 
 ------------------------------
 
 Subject: 4.2) What is the Boston Archive?
 
      Here's an 8-bit Atari FTP site located at Boston University.  It is
 maintained by Adam Bryant, mailto:adb@albert.bu.edu .  This site seems to
 have seen no uploads for years, but there are some files here that aren't
 on any of the other sites.  [IS THIS SITE LOST? - 10/13/95]
 
      ftp://cs-ftp.bu.edu/PC/ATARI (128.197.13.20)
 
 ------------------------------
 
 Subject: 4.3) What is the PVV Archive?
 
 This is a mid-sized Atari FTP site maintained by mailto:eyvind@stud.unit.no
 (Eyvind Bernhardsen).  PVV stands for ProgramVareVerstedet, or The Software
 Workshop, a student society at the University of Trondheim, Norway.
 
      ftp://ftp.pvv.unit.no/pub/atari/8bit/ (129.241.210.232)
 
 Uploads go to /incoming/atari/8bit; Eyvind will move them to the appropriate
 directory.  Please include a readme file with each upload, so people know
 what they're downloading.
 
 ------------------------------
 
 Subject: 4.4) What is the ClarkNet Archive?
 
 This smallish 8-bit Atari FTP site is maintained by Kevin Atkinson,
 mailto:kevina@clark.net .
 
 ftp://ftp.clark.net/pub/atari (168.143.0.2)
 
 Write to Kevin for uploading instructions.
 
 A mirror of the ClarkNet Archive, kept by Jason Duerstock:
 ftp://ftp.kendall.mdcc.edu/pub/atari/clark.net/ (147.70.146.36)
 
 ------------------------------
 
 Subject: 4.5) What is the Gatekeeper's Archive?
 
 This small FTP site offers most of the resources provided on the Atari
 8-Bit Home Page.  Kept by mailto:ipoorten@cs.vu.nl (Ivo van Poorten, The
 Gatekeeper).
 
 ftp://ftp.cs.vu.nl/pub/ipoorten/atari.8bit (192.31.231.43)
 
 ------------------------------
 
 Subject: 4.6) What is the Polish Demo Archive?
 
 It's a place when you can get all Polish (not only) demos (not only)
                        on a Atari 8-bit.
 If You have any comments, write to:
                 mailto:LukSoft@hipokrates.am.lublin.pl
 
 ftp://hipokrates.am.lublin.pl/sys/pub/atari8/
 
 ------------------------------
 
 Subject: 4.7) What is the Slovakian Archive?
 
 This FTP site contains some demos, games, utils, zines from all the world.
 Here you can also find some Slovak or Czech stuff.
 
 Contact:  mailto:mchorvat@econ.umb.sk (Marco, of GMG)
                                                                 
 ftp://svs.scsss.sk/pub/atari/
 
 ------------------------------
 
 Subject: 5.1) What is the Cleveland Free-Net Atari SIG?
 
 Internet access to the Cleveland Free-Net (Cleveland, Ohio, USA):
 
 telnet://freenet-in-a.cwru.edu  or
 telnet://freenet-in-b.cwru.edu  or
 telnet://freenet-in-c.cwru.edu
 
 Type "go atari" at any menu.
 
 Contact:
 mailto:xx004@cleveland.freenet.edu (Atari SIG)
 
 ------------------------------
 
 Subject: 5.2) What is the National Capital FreeNet Atari Users SIG?
 
 Internet access to the National Capital FreeNet (Ottawa, Ontario, Canada):
 
 telnet://telnet.ncf.carleton.ca  (Type "go atari" at any menu) or
 gopher://gopher.ncf.carleton.ca  or
 http://www.ncf.carleton.ca/
 
 Contact:
 mailto:ac382@freenet.carleton.ca (Jack Kitowicz) or 
 mailto:aa728@freenet.carleton.ca (Blair Dea)
 
 ------------------------------
 
 Subject: 5.3) What is the Victoria Telecommunity Network Atari Users SIG?
 
 Internet access to the Victoria Telecommunity Network (Victoria, British
 Columbia, Canada):
 
 telnet://freenet.victoria.bc.ca (Type "go atari" at any menu)
 
 Contact:
 mailto:ua558@freenet.victoria.bc.ca (Gordon Hooper) or
 mailto:ud264@freenet.victoria.bc.ca (Ted Skrecky)
 
 ------------------------------
 
 Subject: 7.1) What WWW pages support the 8-bit Atari?
 
 This should be a complete list of WWW pages supporting the 8-bit Atari.
 
 
 VENDORS/DEVELOPERS/PUBLISHERS:
 See my companion vendor/developer list
 
 
 USER GROUPS:
 
 Atari Bit Byter User Club e.V. (ABBUC e.V.)
 Wolfgang Burger, mailto:wburger@cww.de
 http://home.t-online.de/home/WBurger/
 
 Atari Boise User Group (ABUG)
 Ron Whittam, whittam@primenet.com
 http://www.primenet.com/~whittam/atari.html
 
 Atari Computer Enthusiasts of Columbus (ACEC)
 Michael Steve, mailto:msteve@magnus.acs.ohio-state.edu
 http://hcgl1.eng.ohio-state.edu/~steve/ATARI/acec.html
 
 The Atari Exchange of Louisville (AEL)
 http://ourworld.compuserve.com/homepages/rlink/
 
 Central Atari Information Network (CAIN)
 Cleveland Free-Net Atari SIG, mailto:xx004@cleveland.freenet.edu
 http://ace.cs.ohiou.edu/personal/mleair/cain.html
 
 Edmonton Atari Computer Hobbyists (EACH)
 Leslie Hartmier, mailto:leslieh@tibalt.supernet.ab.ca 
 http://www.compdirect.com/each/
 
 Queensland Atari Computer Enthusiasts (QACE)
 mailto:qace@closer.brisnet.org.au
 http://www.closer.brisnet.org.au/atari/atari.html
 
 St. Paul Atari Computer Enthusiasts (SPACE)
 Michael Current, mailto:mcurrent@carleton.edu
 http://www.library.carleton.edu/space/
 
 Toronto Atari Federation (TAF)
 Stephen Christian, mailto:schrist@interlog.com 
 http://www.interlog.com/~schrist/taf/
 
 
 BBS HOME PAGES:
 
 Beco Tel
 Bernard Kok, mailto:bernard@becotel.demon.nl 
 http://www.becotel.demon.nl/
 
 Atari Inside
 Marius Diepenhorst, mailto:pokey@dds.nl
 http://huizen.dds.nl/~pokey/
 
 The Last Hope
 Ryan Goolevitch, mailto:ryang@trideja.com
 http://www.trideja.com/lasthope/
 
 
 OTHER HOME PAGES:
 
 The Atari 8-Bit Home Page
 Ivo van Poorten, mailto:ipoorten@cs.vu.nl
 http://pmwww.cs.vu.nl/home/ipoorten/Atari.8bit.Homepage/
 
 Atari 8-bit Resort
 Marek Tomczyk, mailto:Marek.Tomczyk@stud.uni-karlsruhe.de
 http://www.uni-karlsruhe.de/~Marek.Tomczyk/8bit.html
 
 Big Atari 8bit Home Page
 Tomasz Tatar, mailto:tatar@student.uci.agh.edu.pl
 http://student.uci.agh.edu.pl/~tatar/Atari/hp.html
 
 Some Atari 8-bit Stuff
 Rob Funk, mailto:funk+@osu.edu
 http://er4www.eng.ohio-state.edu/~funkr/Atari/
 
 Atari XL/XE-System
 ACF Design Team, mailto:wwg28@rzserv2.fh-lueneburg.de
 http://rzserv2.fh-lueneburg.de:8080/Atari_2
 
 ATARI XL/XE - Homepage
 Stefan Lausberg, mailto:lausberg@studbox.uni-stuttgart.de
 http://wwwcip.rus.uni-stuttgart.de/~inf11492/
 
 Tolkien computer games for the Atari 400
 Fredrik Ekman, mailto:ekman@lysator.liu.se
 http://www.lysator.liu.se/tolkien-games/atari.html
 
 The good old Atari Computers (1978-1985)
 Sacha Hofer, mailto:hofer@iamexwi.unibe.ch
 http://iamexwi.unibe.ch/studenten/hofer/atari1.html
 
 Beyond ....The Black Stump Atari Page
 mailto:pdg@alexia.net.au
 http://werple.net.au/~lions/atari.htm
 
 Alternate Reality Homepage
 Robert Hagenstrom, mailto:rob@ksk.sala.se
 http://www.ksk.sala.se/~rob/dungeon/
 
 Reminiscing: 8-Bit Atari Games
 John V. Goodman, mailto:jgoodman@tiac.net
 http://www.tiac.net/users/jgoodman/atari/atarienter.html
 
 Classic Home Video Games Museum
 Dennis Brown, mailto:dgb@owlnet.rice.edu
 http://www.owlnet.rice.edu/~dgb/museum/
 
 La cueva de los 8 bits
 Mariano Domnguez Molina, mailto:mariano@ce.fciencias.unam.mx 
 http://graf.fciencias.unam.mx:100/~mariano/atari.html
 
 Alternate Reality The Classic Role Playing Game
 Matt Roller, kirk.webb@m.cc.utah.edu
 http://www.cc.utah.edu/~krw8466
 
 Atari 8-bit Emulator Page
 Tony Smolar, mailto:asmolar@ma.ultranet.com
 http://www.ultranet.com/~asmolar/atari8/
 
 Atari 8-bit Utilities (emulators/SIO2PC/APE)
 Preston Crow, mailto:crow@cs.dartmouth.edu
 http://www.cs.dartmouth.edu/~crow/atari/
 
 BRiTiSH Underground Atari 8-bit
 Craig Lisowski, mailto:clisowsk@mcs.kent.edu
 http://intrepid.mcs.kent.edu/~clisowsk/8bit.html
 
 Homepage Nyman: Atari 8 bit
 Peter Nyman, mailto:N94PetNy@Midgard.Liu.Se
 http://www.geocities.com/SiliconValley/2741/8bit.html
 
 Atari 8-bit Emulator utilities
 Ivan Mackintosh, mailto:ivan@dales.rmplc.co.uk 
 http://dales.rmplc.co.uk/ivan/atari/ 
 
 Draco's Atari area
 Konrad M. Kokoszkiewicz, mailto:conradus@plearn.edu.pl
 http://www.orient.uw.edu.pl/~conradus/atari.html
 
 8-Bit Atari Emulation and Games
 David Grieve, mailto:DavidG@bagend.otago.ac.nz
 http://www.otago.ac.nz/Web_menus/User_Homepages/david/
 
 Cartridge List for the Classic Atari 800/XL/XE Computers
 Andrew Krieg, mailto:krieg@execpc.com
 http://www.execpc.com/~krieg/VidGames.htm
 
 The M*U*L*E Web
 David L. Tucker, mailto:dtucker@dtucker.ultranet.com
 http://www.ultranet.com/~dtucker/
 
 The Digital ANTIC Project
 Kevin Savetz, mailto:savetz@northcoast.com
 http://www.atarimagazines.com/
 
 TIGHT group - Atari 8-bit stuff
 Michal Franczak, mailto:mfranczak@ajax.umcs.lublin.pl
 http://ajax.umcs.lublin.pl/~mfranczak/atari/
 
 The Atari 400/800 and OSS
 Paul Laughton, mailto:paul@laughton.com
 http://www.laughton.com/paul/abps/oss/oss.html
 
 InfoMan's Atari Page
 Trevor Holyoak, mailto:infoman@poboxes.com
 http://www.holyoak.com/atari/
 
 BKproductions 8bit Power!
 Will Fisher, mailto:blackat@direct.ca
 http://www.ogopogo.com/blackat/8bit/
 
 Atari Gaming Headquarters
 Keita Iida, John Hardie & Les Caron, mailto:atari@mindspring.com
 http://www.mindspring.com/~keita/agh.html
 
 Phoenix Atari Connection
 John Collins, mailto:irata@aztec.asu.edu
 http://www.inficad.com/~bosco
 
 ATARI XL/XE Computer - Welcome / Willkommen / Bienvenue
 Ulf Petersen, mailto:ulf@antic.cls.de
 http://members.aol.com/upetersen/atari.htm
 
 Classic Video Game High Score List
 Russ Melanson, mailto:rfm@primenet.com
 http://www.primenet.com/~rfm/cvhigh.html
 
 Nordic Atari Show (NAS) and Convention
 Rolf Johansson, mailto:rojo@tripnet.se
 http://www.tripnet.se/sak/nas/
 
 Atari 8-Bit
 Marcus Phillips, mailto:marcusphillips@geocities.com.
 http://www.geocities.com/RainForest/4677/Atari8.html
 
 Alternate Reality on the Web
 Sean Noble, mailto:seaner@exo.com
 http://www.pacificone.com/sean/
 
 Captain Balde's Atari Bookmarks
 Rich Tietjens, mailto:atari@teleport.com
 http://www.teleport.com/~atari/
 
 Computer Trading Zone
 Sean Noble, mailto:trader@pacificone.com
 http://www.pacificone.com/trader/
 
 FM Atari 8bit Info
 Fred Meijer, mailto:webmaster@meijer.demon.nl
 http://www.meijer.demon.nl/
 
 The Classics Exchange
 David Wyn Davies, mailto:starwars@enterprise.net 
 http://homepages.enterprise.net/starwars/
 
 The Fuji Federation
 David Schmudde, mailto:dschmud@heartland.bradley.edu
 http://ourworld.compuserve.com/homepages/dschmud/fujihome.htm
 
 Planet Irata...World of Atari
 Tony Cervo, mailto:tcervo@slip.net
 http://www.geocities.com/SiliconValley/Vista/3015/
 
 Atari XL/XE Games And Demos
 Sven Gleich, mailto:sven.gleich@mb1.tu-chemnitz.de 
 http://www.tu-chemnitz.de/~sgl/atari/
 
 HeAvEn's Demo-Homepage
 mailto:nadkar@fh-pforzheim.de
 http://iraul1.ira.uka.de/~s_tomczy/
 
 The Video Game High Score Page
 Sam Hartmann, mailto:pbjurman@aol.com
 http://members.aol.com/pbjurman/highscores.html
 
 Atari 8-bit Projects & Stuff
 Sidney Cadot, mailto:sidney@ch.twi.tudelft.nl 
 http://ch.twi.tudelft.nl/~sidney/atari/
 
 The Atari Prototypes & Vaporwares Site
 Curt Vendel, mailto:cvendel@aol.com
 http://members.aol.com/cvendel/vaporware.html
 
 Atari Preservation Society (APS)
 mailto:ShelShock@aol.com (Dave Bell)
 http://www.geocities.com/SiliconValley/Vista/1863/main.html
 
 Atari 8-bit & Linux
 mailto:pavel@atrey.karlin.mff.cuni.cz (Pavel Machek)
 http://atrey.karlin.mff.cuni.cz/~pavel/atari/
 
 Page of all Atarians and M.E.C. Group (Masters of Electric City)
 Dhor, mailto:dhor@student.uci.agh.edu.pl
 http://student.uci.agh.edu.pl/~dhor/atari/atari.html
 
 Atari Technical Information
 mailto:trevin@xmission.com (Trevin Beattie)
 http://www.xmission.com/~trevin/atari/atari.html
 
 Ken's Atari 8-Bit Page
 Ken Siders, mailto:ken_siders@compuserve.com
 http://ourworld.compuserve.com/homepages/ken_siders/atari.htm
 
 Cobra Team Home Page
 Krzysztof Sieniawski, mailto:chris@superexpress.com.pl
 http://chris.se.com.pl/
 
 ------------------------------
 
 Subject: 8.1) What IRC channels discuss the 8-bit Atari?
 
 ==> #atari8 - Just for 8-bit Atari users!
 
 ==> #rgvc - Classic Games and Systems Collectors.  "Rec.Games.Video.Classic"
 
 mailto:cmwagner@gate.net (Chad Wagner) writes:
 
 If you have access to a Unix host then you should be able to get to irc by
 typing irc at your shell prompt and jumping on an EFnet server
 (irc.portal.com, irc.eskimo.com, dewey.cc.utexas.edu) and joining #atari8.
 
 If you are using a host that has a menu system then locate IRC and go there,
 and join #atari8 (and hope your on EFnet, :).
 
 If you are using SLIP/PPP then download a client (for Windows users, download
 mIRC for Winsock archives, and I would guess that most SLIP/PPP users -- if
 they have gotten that far -- are familiar with IRC, :) and select one of
 the servers and join #atari8.  There is many IRC servers on EFnet, chances
 are the one your on is on EFnet.
 
 ------------------------------
 
 Subject: 9.1) What's this UUEncoding stuff (.uu, .uue files) all about?
 
      UUEncode/UUdecode is a UNIX utility that will convert a binary file into
 100% printable ASCII characters, so that the file may be posted or e-mailed
 anywhere a text message can go.  The 8-bit Atari is perfectly capable of
 UUEncoding/UUdecoding as well.  On the archives:
 
 Uudecode 1.2a by John Sangster - very functional.
   filenames: Archivers/uudecode.bas, Archivers/uudecode.doc
 
 Yet Another UU-coder by John Dunning - both decoding/encoding.
   filename: Archivers/yau.arc
 
 Uudecode.com, Uuencode.com by ??? - "newer, cleaner, easier to use."
   filename: Utilities/uue.arc
 
 Dumas UU-coder by John Dunning
   filename: Cc65/dumasuu.arc
 
 ------------------------------
 
 Subject: 9.2) What is an .arc file?
 
      A file with the extender .arc has been archived in a standard manner that
 is common in the MS-DOS world.  This is done to make the file shorter,
 so it takes up less space on your disk and it takes less time to transfer
 between computers.  The archives contains several 8-bit Atari archivers
 fully compatible with this standard, including:
 
 Super Un-Arc 2.3, Super Arc 2.0 by Bob Puff - highly recommended.
   filenames:   Archivers/superarc.arc - both Super Un-Arc & Super Arc
                Archivers/suprarc2.arc - Super Arc
                Archivers/supunarc.com - Super Un-Arc
                Archivers/supunarc.uue - Super Un-Arc
  
 ------------------------------
 
 Subject: 9.3) What are the .DCM, .ATR, and .XFD file formats?
 
 These are all filename extensions used to name files containing entire 8-bit 
 Atari floppy disk images.
 
 DCM - Disk Communicator format.  Invented by Bob Puff,
       mailto:76702.1076@compuserve.com for his Disk Communicator 3.2 utility.
       Used when working with native Atari hardware.
 
 ATR - Atari disk image format.  Invented by Nick Kennedy,
       mailto:nkennedy@cswnet.com for his SIO2PC project.
       Used when working with non-Atari hardware.
 
 XFD - Xformer disk image format. Invented by Emulators Inc,
       mailto:emulators@msn.com for their ST Xformer emulator.
       Identical to ATR except without the 16 byte header.
       Used when working with non-Atari hardware.
 
 PRO - APE ProSystem format.  Invented by Steven Tucker, 
       mailto:classics@nacs.net for his APE ProSystem device.
       Used with APE, the Atari Peripheral Emulator.
 
 ------------------------------
 
 Subject: 9.4) What are the .XMO and .BIN file formats?
 
 XMO stands for XMODEM.  The idea was that the file was not plain text,
 but was a binary file.  As a binary file, it had to be downloaded using a
 file transfer protocol such as XMODEM.  The use of ".xmo" as a filename
 extender was popular once, but has been discouraged for years.
 
 BIN - another filename extension sometimes used to designate binary-load
 files.  Like .xmo, use of .bin is discouraged.
 
 ------------------------------
 
 Subject: 11.1) What are the best terminal emulators available?
 
      Here are some of the more popular PD/freeware/shareware terminal
 programs available.
 
 BobTerm 1.22, shareware by Bob Puff
 (There's also a 1.23 that's specific to PC XFormer)
      Emulates: VT52
      Text: 40 columns in gr.0; 80 col. w/ XEP80
      File Xfer: XMODEM, YMODEM, FMODEM
      Autodial: Yes
      Backscroll buffer: No
      Capture-to-disk: Yes
      Summary: Feature-filled; excellent for BBSing
      filename: Telecomm/bterm12.arc
 
 Kermit-65 3.7, PD by John R. Dunning
      Emulates: VT100
      Text: 40 columns in gr.0; 80 col. in gr.8; 80 col. w/ XEP80 (sort of)
      File Xfer: Kermit
      Autodial: No
      Backscroll buffer: No
      Capture-to-disk: No
      Summary: Excellent VT100 emulation; rock-solid Kermit Xfers
      filenames:   Telecomm/k65v37.arc - latest version
                   Telecomm/k65doc.arc - documentation
                   Telecomm/k65src.arc - source code
 
 OmniCom by CDY Consulting
      Emulates: VT100
      Text: 80 columns in gr.8
      File Xfer: XMODEM, Kermit
      Autodial: No
      Backscroll buffer: No
      Capture-to-disk: No
      Summary: Combination VT100, XMODEM, Kermit; buggy at file Xfers
      filename: Telecomm/omnicom.arc
 
 VT850 B1, shareware by Curtis Laser
      Emulates: VT100/VT102 (plus complete VT220 keymap)
      Text: 40 columns in gr.0; 80 col. w/ XEP80
      File Xfer: None
      Autodial: No
      Backscroll buffer: No
      Capture-to-disk: Yes
      Summary: Excellent at VT100 on the XEP80; 1200bps top speed
      filename: Telecomm/vt850b1.arc
 
 FlickerTerm 80 v.0.51, freeware by LonerSoft (Clay Halliwell)
      Emulates: VT100, IBM ANSI
      Text: 80 column via a special Graphics 0 screen (no hardware req'd)
      File Xfer: None
      Autodial: No
      Backscroll buffer: No
      Capture-to-disk: No
      Summary: Fastest and most complete VT100 emulation; readability a minus
      filename: ?????
 
 Ice-T XE v. 2.72 (128K) or Ice-T 1.1 (48K) by Itay Chamiel
      Emulates: VT100
      Text: 80 column via a fast-scrolling graphics 8 screen
      File Xfer: XMODEM download
      Autodial: Yes (2.7 XE) or No (1.1)
      Backscroll buffer: Yes--8 screens (2.7 XE) or One screen (1.1)
      Capture-to-disk: Yes--up to 16K (2.7 XE) or No (1.1)
      Summary: Excellent for high-speed VT100 emulation
 
 ------------------------------
 
 Subject: 11.2) Can I read/write 8-bit Atari disks on an IBM-PC?
 
 There are several programs that allow an MS-DOS system to work with an
 Atari-format diskette.  The following require a DOS and disk drive on the
 Atari end capable of the SS/DD 180K format:
 
 ATARIO by Dave Brandman w/ Kevin White - Reads SS/DD 180K Atari disks.
   filename: Diskutils/atario21.arc
 
 SpartaRead by Oscar Fowler - Reads SS/DD 180K SpartaDOS disks.
   filename: Diskutils/sr.arc
 
 UTIL by Charles Marslett - Reads/Writes SS/DD 180K Atari disks. Use MyUTIL!
   filename: Diskutils/dskutil.arc
      (Older versions are contained in pcxfer.arc, util.arc, and ataridsk.arc)
 
 MyUTIL by Charles Marslett with Mark Vallevand, and
 SpartaDOS disk utility by Mark Vallevand
   filename: Diskutils/myutil.zip
      includes best version of UTIL for read/write of SS/DD 180K Atari disks,
      plus Mark's SpartaDOS disk utility v0.1e to access 180K SpartaDOS disks
 
 MyUTIL and the XF551 - tips from mailto:JTKIRK@urp.edu.pe:
 
 ]MyUtil works fine with the XF551. The XF551's speed is 300 rpm (sometimes even
 ]up to 303 rpm). I've got two XF551s and can read/write disks written on a PC
 ]with MyUtil on both with no problems. MyUtil even can write to a DS/DD disk,
 ]for a total of 360 K, BUT: the ATARI disks not only have the bits inverted,
 ]the second side is also read BACKWARDS respect to PC disks. That is, when
 ]MyUtil on the PC writes to what it thinks is sector 721, it really is writing
 ]to sector 1440! Worse, if you take an ATARI disk with a file whose sectors
 ]get past sector 720, MyUtil will attempt to read the sector 2161-n instead of
 ]'n', and you'll get a 'truncated record' error. The solution is simply to
 ]rewrite the code to take into account this (if sec>720 then sec=2161-sec).
 ]Let me know if you modify this. You don't know how frustrating it is to have
 ]to use only 180 K of a 360 K disk! I'm going to analyze the source code, but
 ]I don't know if I will be able to modify it properly. If someone does it
 ]before, please email me and send me an uuencoded copy or tell me where to get
 ]it.
 
 Here's some advice on using the above utilities from mailto:hans@umd5.umd.edu
 (Hans Breitenlohner):
 
 There are two technical obstacles to interchanging disks between
 DD Atari drives and PC drives.
 
 1. The Atari drive spins slightly slower (288 rpm instead of 300 rpm).
    If you format a disk on the Atari, then write sectors on the PC, it is
    possible that the header of the next physical sector will be overwritten,
    making that sector unreadable.  (The next physical sector is usually
    the current logical sector+2).  The solution to this is to format all
    disks on the PC.
        (Aside:  Does anybody know how this problem is handled on the
         XF551?  Is it also slowed down?)
      Konrad Kokoszkiewicz, mailto:conradus@plearn.edu.pl answers:
      "The XF551 disk drive is not slowed down - these drives are spinning
      300 rotations per minute. To prevent troubles with read/write disks
      formatted and written on normal Atari drives (288 rot/min), the main
      crystal frequency for the floppy disk controller is 8.333 MHz
      (not 8 MHz, as in 1050, for example)."
 
 2. If the PC drive is a 1.2M drive there is the additional problem of the
    track width.  The following is generally true in the PC world:
     - disks written on 360k drives can be read on either drive
     - blank disk formatted and written on 1.2M drives can be read on
       either kind
     - disks written on a 360k drive, and overwritten on a 1.2M drive,
       can be read reliably only on a 1.2M drive.
     - disks previously formatted on a 360k drive, or formatted as 1.2MB,
       and then reformatted on a 1.2M drive to 360k, can be read reliably
       only on a 1.2M drive.
     (all this assumes you are using DD media, not HD).
 
    Solution: Use a 360k drive if you can.  If not, format disks on the
    Atari for Atari to PC transfers, format truly blank disks on the PC
    for PC to Atari transfers.
 
    Jon D. Melbo, mailto:ssilicon@lax.net sums it up this way:
    So a basic rule of themb when sharing 360KB floppies among 360KB &
    1.2MB drives is: Never do any writes with a 1.2MB drive to a disk that
    has been previously written to in a 360KB drive....UNLESS... you only
    plan on ever using that disk in the 1.2Mb drive from then on out. Of
    course a disk can be reformated in a particular drive any time for use
    in that drive.   As long as you follow that rule, you can utilize the
    backwards compatible 360KB modes that most 1.2MB drives offer.
 
 
 While the above work with SS/DD 180K Atari-format disks, the following
 combination of utilities can be used to work with SS/SD 90K Atari-format
 disks, and is currently the best bet for reading SS/ED 128K Atari-format
 disks.
 
 AnaDisk 2.07, shareware by Sydex - Reads/Writes "any" 5.25" diskette
   filenames: Xf2/anad207.zip, Xf2/anadisk.txt
 Deana by Nate Monson - converts AnaDisk dump files from Atari format
   filenames: Xf2/deana.com, Xf2/deana.txt
 
 Explanation --> According to mailto:crow@cs.dartmouth.edu (Preston Crow),
 "As best as I can figure it out, if your PC drive happens to read
 FM disks (I'm not sure what the criteria for that is), then you
 can read single density disks on your PC by dumping the contents
 to a file with AnaDisk, and then using Deana.com to convert the
 dump file into a usable format.
 For enhanced density disks, Anadisk generally only reads the first
 portion of each sector, but it demonstrates that it is possible for
 a PC drive to read enhanced density disks."
 
 ------------------------------
 
 Subject: 11.3) Can I read/write MS-DOS disks on an 8-bit Atari?
 
 a) Mule by Rick Cortese - Read/Write 180K MS-DOS disks with an Atari 1050
 drive or equivalent.  Very limited.
   filenames: Diskutils/mule.arc, Diskutils/mule.exe, Diskutils/mule.txt
 
 b) SIO2PC, described elsewhere in this FAQ List (section 11.5), can be
 used to read/write to a hard drive connected to an MS-DOS system.  This
 can also be a very effective file-transfer solution.
 
 c) The XF551 3.5" Upgrades from Computer Software Services (see the
 companion vendor/developer list) allow the Atari XF551 disk drive to read
 720K 3.5" MS-DOS disks.
 
 d) The Floppy Board, the add-on to the Black-Box from Computer Software
 Services (see the companion vendor/developer list), allows both low
 density (360K 5.25", 720K 3.5"), and, in the case of the Deluxe
 Version, high density (1.2M 5.25", 1.44M 3.5") external MS-DOS-standard
 floppy drives to be used on the Atari.  A utility is included to
 read/write MS-DOS formatted floppies in all supported densities.
 
 ------------------------------
 
 Subject: 11.4) How do I transfer files using a null modem cable?
 
 This section by mailto:cb541@cleveland.Freenet.Edu (James R. Gilbert)
 
 A:  Simply put, you need a terminal program and an RS 232 port on
     each computer.  The RS 232 ports need to be connected
     together using a 'null modem cable'.
 
     For up to 4800 bps, no flow control lines need be
     connected.  Just cross the transmit and receive lines
     and join the grounds together.  (Transmit is pin #2,
     receive is pin #3 and ground is pin #7 on the 25-pin
     port.)
 
     The right hand pin on the 'long' side of a female 'D'
     connector is #1.  There are 13 holes on this 'long'
     side, 12 holes on the 'short' side.  The numbers go from
     #1 on the right to #13 on the left on the 'long' side
     and from #14 to #25 from right to left on the 'short'
     side. #25 is closest to being under #13.  A male
     connector is the mirror image of this.
 
     Most terminal programs allow a null connection, without a
     carrier detect.  Notably, '850 Express!' does not.
 
     A convenient way to make a null modem cable, up to about
     30 feet long, is to use two female DB25 connectors and
     some three or more conductor cable.  Using the two DB25
     female connectors allows unplugging your modem and
     plugging in the null modem cable.  This also avoids the
     confusion of the wide variety of serial port jacks on
     different computers.  Almost all computers connect into
     the modem via a DB25 connection.
 
     The SIO port on the Atari cannot be used directly.  An
     850 Interface Module, P:R:Connection, Multi I/O, Black
     Box (by Computer Software Services) or similar device
     that provides an RS232 port must be used.
 
     On the Atari, the port is a female DB9.  So you need a
     male DB9 to male DB25 modem cable to connect to your
     modem. So why not use this cable as your null modem
     cable as well?
 
     For higher speed connections, above about 9600 bps on the
     8-bit, you need the flow control lines.  You also need
     a Multi I/O or Black Box, which use the PBI (parallel bus),
     then you can go higher than 9600 bps.
 
     Following are pin assignments for a DB25 pin RS 232 C
     port.
                  13                       1
                   o o o o o o o o o o o o o
                    o o o o o o o o o o o o
                   25                     14
 
           (Above is female, male is mirror image.)
 
 1.  Protective Ground        12.  Select Alternate Rate
 2.  Transmit Data            15.  Transmit Clock (sync)
 3.  Receive Data             17.  Receive clock (sync)
 4.  RTS (Request to Send)    20.  Data Terminal Ready
 5.  CTS (Clear to Send)      22.  Ring indicator
 6.  Data Set Ready           23.  Select Alternate Rate
 7.  Signal Ground            24.  Transmit Clock
 8.  Carrier Detect
 
     A high speed cable would need not only pins 2 and 3 crossed
     but also pins 4 and 5 as well as 6 and 8.  Or better
     yet, make a true 25 wire, straight through cable and use
     a commercial null modem.  A commercial null modem is
     just a small device with the correct lines already
     crossed.
 
     (DTE = Data Terminal Equipment, i.e., your computer.
      DCE = Data Communications Equipment, i.e., your modem.)
 
 ------------------------------
 
 Subject: 11.5) What is SIO2PC?
 
  Original text by Dave Paterson, mailto:davepat@total.net
 
 SIO2PC is a cable and software combination that lets you use your PC as up
 to 4 drives for your 8-bit.  Drives can be SD, ED, DD or custom sizes up to
 16 megs.  SIO2PC also lets you redirect the printer output to your PC
 printer or to a file on the PC.  High speed drives are emulated (a la US
 Doubler).
 
 All these functions are transparent at the Atari end; you never notice the
 difference between SIO2PC and regular drives, except that the SIO2PC drives
 are faster than any others (except Ramdisks and PBI interface drives).
 
 Several different designs for the SIO2PC hardware are floating around.  Best
 contact the author for the latest details.
 
 SIO2PC 4.13 is shareware by Nick Kennedy, mailto:nkennedy@cswnet.com
 
 ------------------------------
 
 Subject:  11.6) How can I convert my commercial boot tape into a cassette
                 image file?
 
 mailto:ernest@pi.net (Ernest R. Schreurs) writes:
 
 For those of you that like ALL classic Atari software, there is now a
 way to store all software that has been recorded on cassette tapes on
 the hard disk of your PC.  I have written a program that is similar to
 the SIO2PC utility written by Nick Kennedy.  But this one is intended
 for use with cassette software.  You will need the following items:
 
 Any PC equipped with a sound card and about 50 to 100 Megs of free
 disk space to work with. The sound card should be able to sample sound
 at a sample rate of 44.100 Hz mono.  The sample must be recorded into
 a .wav file.
 You need the wav2cas program to convert the .wav file to a .cas file.
 The .cas file is a digital cassette image file that only contains the
 data that is on the cassette tape.  Once you have that, you can throw
 away the .wav file.  The .cas files are typically 16 to 64K, so they
 are relatively small.
 
 To load cassette files into your Atari (i.e. boot a digital cassette
 image) you do not need a sound card.  You do need a SIO2PC cable or
 similar device.  You also need the cas2sio program.
 
 The wav2cas and cas2sio programs should be available from the archives
 of Umich by now.  They have been put together in one zip file
 wav2cas.zip, along with the documentation and the 'C' source code.
 You can download it through the web interface at the URL
 http://www.umich.edu/~archive/atari/8bit/Emulators/Peripherals/wav2cas.zip
 Note the capital in Emulators and in Peripherals.
 Thanks to William Kendrick for helping me get it uploaded there!
 You can also try the gopher stuff:
 gopher://gopher.archive.umich.edu:7055/11/atari/8bit/Emulators/Peripherals/
 
 Steven Tucker, the author of APE, has added support for this file
 format as of version 1.15 of APE.  It looks real neat, so try that out
 too!  Thanks to Steven for adding a nice user interface for these
 cassette images.  He did a nice job.  I am hoping other using are
 willing to write some programs to get more enjoyment out of this
 underrated storage medium.
 
 My stuff is available totally free for personal use, so I hope you
 enjoy it. Read the docs about the conditions.
 
 Keep those XL's/XE's humming.
 If you have any questions feel free to E-mail me: mailto:ernest@pi.net
 
 ------------------------------
 
 Subject: 12.1) What 5.25" floppy disk drives are available?
 
 Major contributors to this section:
 mailto:Krishna@max.tiac.net (Glenn M. Saunders)
 mailto:tatar@student.uci.agh.edu.pl (Tomasz M. Tatar)
 mailto:sup8pdct@closer.brisnet.org.au (James Bradford)
 mailto:draco@mi.com.pl (Konrad M. Kokoszkiewicz)
 
 ==> Atari 810
             SS SD           19.2Kbps standard
 
 ==> Happy 810
             SS SD           Warp speed
 
 ==> Atari 1050
             SS SD/ED        19.2Kbps standard
 
 ==> Happy 1050
             SS SD/ED/DD     Warp speed US Doubler/19.2 and 52k. track
 buffering
 
 ==> Cheer-Up 1050           Clone of "Happy" 1050
 
 ==> Super Archiver 1050
             SS SD/ED/DD     Ultra Speed 50+K
 
 ==> Speedy 1050
             SS SD/ED/DD     78K mode (European) used w/ Bibo-DOS (Compy Shop)
 
 ==> SuperMax 1050
             SS SD/ED/DD     19.2k and 52k (ultra speed)
 by Super Products. Compatiable with SuperDOS and US Doubler
 
 ==> Lazer 1050
             SS SD/ED/DD     Another Happy clone; Compatible w/ US Doubler
 
 ==> Atari XF551
             SS/DS SD/ED/DD  38K burst mode usable only with SpartaDOS X,
 SuperDOS 5.1, TurboDOS, DOS XE, and patched SpartaDOS 3.2. XF DS system now
 considered "standard".
 
 ==> CSS XF551
             SS/DS SD/ED/DD  US Doubler compatible. Updates drive to work
 better and faster.  Also 3.5" upgrade available
 
 ==> Percom RFD4x-Sy
 where: x=0 -> a single-sided drive
        x=4 -> a double-sided drive
        y=1 -> a single-drive unit
        y=2 -> a dual-drive unit
 
 ==> Percom AT88-Sy[PD]
 where: y=1 -> a single-drive unit
        y=2 -> a dual-drive unit
        PD  -> equipped with a built-in parallel printer port
 
 ==> Trak ATD1
             SS SD
 
 ==> Trak ATD2
             SS SD/DD
 Built in Diagnostics.  Track indicator.  Write protect switch.  Built in
 parallel printer interface.  2k printer buffer (expandable).  Optional
 Turbo software on Eprom.
 
 ==> Trak AT-1
             SS SD/DD        Slave
 
 ==> Indus GT
             SS SD/ED/DD     Synchromesh mode usable with SpartaDOS X and
 DOSXL only.
 
 ==> Astra Double-D?
             SS/DS SD/DD?    standard /LEDs and such
 
 ==> Rana 1000
             SS SD/ED/DD     standard /LEDs and such can format disks on a
 stand alone basis
 
 ==> TOMS 720
 double head disk drive, 5.25", with mounted interface Centronics,
 chips: CPU 8085, WD2797, PIA 8255 (for handle Centronics), 32 KB ROM, 8 KB RAM
 ROM contains: OS of drive, MYDOS 4.50 and some utilities (copy, format, etc.)
 ROM is seen by computer as drive D1: (if drive is open), and D3: (when drive
 has number D1:) or D4: (when drive has number D2:). It makes possible load DOS
 from ROMdisk during booting system.
 Formats of disks:
 - SS/SD - 40 tracks, 18 sects, 128 bytes = 90 KB
 - SS/ED - 40 tracks, 26 sects, 128 bytes = 130 KB
 - SS/ED - 40 tracks, 18 sects, 256 bytes = 180 KB
 - SS/ID - IBM S-9 - 40 tracks, 9 sects, 512 bytes = 180 KB
 - DS/DD - 40 tracks, 18 sects, 256 bytes = 360 KB
 - DS/QD - 80 tracks, 18 sects, 256 bytes = 720 KB
 - DS/ID - IBM D-9 - 40 tracks, 9 sects, 512 bytes = 360 KB
 Transmition modes:
 - normal - 19200 bps
 - Turbo - 70000 bps
 - Ultra Speed - 70000 bps
 Also tracks buffering.
 
 ==> AS SN-360
 double head disk drive, 5.25", CPU 8051, controler WD2797
 19200 bps
 Available formats:
 - SS/SD - (FM) single sided, single density - 90 KB
 - SS/ED - (MFM) single sided, enhanced density - 130 KB
 - SS/DD - (MFM) single sided, double density - 180 KB
 - DS/DD - (MFM) double sided, double density - 360 KB
 
 ==> TOMS 710
 (The newest polish disk drive and probably the best one)
 Similar to TOMS 720, one more format:
 - double sided, 80 tracks, IBM (720 KB)
 Transmition modes:
 - standard 19200 bps
 - TOMS Turbo (loaded from ROMdisk if drive is open) - 67000 bps
 - Ultra Speed (QMEG-OS, SpartaDOS) - 67000 bps
 Also tracks buffering.
 ROMdisk contain:
 - MYDOS 4.50
 - COPY
 - INIT
 - TURBO - turn on/off TOMS Turbo mode
 - BASIC - turn on/off Atari Basic
 - AUTORUN.SYS - ramdisk
 - README
 Also TOMS Navigator instead of DUP.SYS. It is program similar to Norton
 Commander on PCs.
 IBM-ST copier on additional disk.
 
 ==> LDW Super 2000
             SS SD/ED/DD     19200 bps or 67000 bps
 CPU Z80A, ROM 4 KB, RAM 256 B.  Some difficulties with ED
 
 ==> LDW CA2001
             SS SD/ED/DD     19200 bps or 38400 bps
 CPU Z80A, ROM 4 KB, RAM 256 B.  Some difficulties with ED
 
 ==> LDW CA2002
             SS/DS SD/ED/DD  19200 bps, 70000 with SpartaDOS
 CPU 8040, ROM 4 KB, RAM 256 B
 
 ==> Floppy board various
             Any standard    very fast parallel
 DOS-transparent. Requires Black Box. DS system configurable for
 XF Percom or ATR style
 
 ==> HDI various
             Any standard    very fast SIO? European
 
 ==> SWP ATR-8000
             Any standard    standard except 1.2 meg and unique DS system
 (HD) nice Z80 CP/M system in which CP/M drive acccess is parallel only
 thus faster.
 
 ==> Atari 1450XLD drives
             DS SD/ED DD?    standard, requires DOS4.  unusual DS system
 Only prototypes exist.
 
 ==> KARIN MAXI
 Double head disk drive 360 KB/5,25" or 720 KB/3,5", controller WD 1772.
 Available formats:
 = standard SS/SD 90 KB
 = standard SS/ED 130 KB
 = standard SS/DD 180 KB
 = 'cylindric' DS/DD 360 KB (XF-551 uncompatible)
 = 'cylindric' DS/QD 720 KB (TOMS-compatible; 720 KB drives only)
 Any other capabilities depend on a special software.
 Transmission mode:
 - parallel: real speed 11.25 kilobytes per second with DOS or 22.5 kilo-
   bytes per second with special track-copier.
 Notes:
 Because of the 1772-registers available in 6502 i/o pages ($D100),
 the KARIN MAXI drives look full-programmable.
 Preferred systems: My-DOS, SDX.
 
 ==> XFD-601B
 Double head 360 KB/5,25" disk drive. Controller WD 1772, CPU 8051.
 Available formats:
 - standard SS/SD 90 KB
 - standard SS/ED 130 KB
 - standard SS/DD 180 KB
 - standard DS/DD 360 KB  (XF-551 compatible)
 Transmission modes:
 - normal 19200 bps
 - Top Drive 1050 70000 bps
 - Indus GT (synchromesh) 70000 bps (GTSYNC.COM and INDUS.SYS are not necessary;
   full-compatibel with the SDX)
 - Ultra Speed 70000 bps (full-compatible with the older SpartaDOS)
 Notes:
 Customized sector skew. In fact, the XFD-601B is a original clone of the
 XF-551.
 
 ==> XFD-602B
 The two XFD-601B drives in the one unit.
 
 ------------------------------
 
 Subject: 12.2) How can I use 3.5" floppy disks with my 8-bit Atari?
 
 to be written.  volunteers?
 
 - Amdek
 - XF551 upgrades (CSS)
 - Floppy Board (CSS)
 - Percom drive upgrades
 
 ==> Atari XF351 or XC35
             3.5" system     Unreleased
 
 ------------------------------
 
 Subject: 12.3) What do I need to connect a hard drive to my 8-bit Atari?
 
  original by mailto:Krishna@max.tiac.net (Glenn M. Saunders)
 
 For starters, you'll need to obtain one of the following interfaces:
 
 ==> Corvus hard drive (10 megabytes)
 Rare.
 Fast but still relatively slow I/O, kludge through joystick ports for 800.
 
 ==> KPI Hard Disk Drive Interface (formerly Supra)
 from K-Products (bobkla19@mail.tcd.net - Bob Klaas)
 Some limitations on drive type and size and total number of drives in sys.
 
 ==> Multi I/O (MIO) (formerly from ICD)
 from Fine Tooned Engineering (FTe) (ftooned@crl.com - Mike Hohman)
 256 byter per sector restriction.  256K and 1 meg ramdisk models.
 Printer and modem, modem will handle 19.2K bps
 
 ==> Black Box
 from Computer Software Services (CSS) (76702.1076@compuserve.com - Bob Puff)
 Will handle all SCSI drives. Allows 9 drive access for MYDOS. Currently the
 only modem interface with CTS/RTS hardware flow control. 19.2K ready.
 
 ==> SWP ATR-8000 
 Rare daughterboard for hard drives.
 I/O is probably fairly slow on this baby and there may be DOS restrictions.
 
 ==> IDE Hard Drive Interface 
 from Konrad M. Kokoszkiewicz and Jacek Zuk
 (see http://www.orient.uw.edu.pl/~conradus/docs/ide_eng.html )
 o  Maximum drive capacity: 16777215 physical blocks on each device. 
 o  Maximum number of partitions: 16 
 o  Maximum capacity of a partition: 16777215 logical sectors 
 o  Logical sector length: 256 or 512 bytes 
 o  Average speed (in kilobytes per second, WDC 130AB drive): 
    -  Native mode, sequence of sectors (R): 75 
    -  Emulation mode, sequence of sectors (R): 43 
    -  Emulation mode, back sequence (R): 28 
    -  Emulation mode, random sectors (R): 13 
    -  Emulation mode, same sector (R): 29 
    -  Emulation mode, DOS file (W): 7 
    -  Emulation mode, DOS file (R): 36 
 o  Booting from any partition (on the standard XL OS) 
 o  Write protection capability 
 o  8 jumpers to set the device number for the operating system 
 o  Sweet 16 compatibility 
 
 ==> Fine Tooned Engineering Multi I/O II
 An IDE interface.  Released?
 
 ==> MSC IDE-Harddisk-Controller
 created by Steve Birmanns and Matthias Belitz in Germany
 mailto:stefan_birmanns@ac.cybercity.de 
 mailto:matz@kawo2.rwth-aachen.de
 http://www.kawo2.rwth-aachen.de/~matz/atari/
 *       real device for the parallel-port of the Atari XL-Series 
 *       up to 240 partitions per harddisk supported 
 *       emulates D1: until D9: of disk devices (access to 9 partitions at one time) 
 *       full bootable from any partition (with standard XL-OS) 
 *       write protectition capability 
 *       supports master/slave configuration 
 *       more than 30 KB/s file access with SPARTA-DOS 3.2 gx (reading) 
 *       more than 10 KB/s file access with SPARTA-DOS 3.2 gx (writing) 
 *       access of ATAPI-CDROM with additional software 
 
 ------------------------------
 
 Subject: 12.4) What kinds of monitors can I use with my Atari?
 
 In general, you either need a Composite Video monitor, or a standard TV.
 
 Television:
 You'll need a video cable (not detachable on the 400/800), and a TV Switch
 Box. Used with VHF Channel 2 or 3.
 
 Monitor:
 The 8-bit Atari produces a color Composite Video signal, plus
 separate chroma (color) and luminance (brightness) signals which the best
 composite video monitors can take advantage of.  Popular examples of such 
 monitors include the Commodore 1702 and 1804 (and many others).
 
 The pinout of the Monitor port is in the pinout section of this FAQ list.
 
 Gotcha's:
 
 -the 400 and North American 600XL lack a monitor port entirely.  They can only
 be used with a TV.
 
 -the 800XL lacks separate chroma/lumi (can be added via hardware modification)
 
 -the XE Game System provides an RCA-style jack in place of the Monitor port;
  so it provides Composite Video but lacks separate chroma\lumi signals
 
 -the XEP80 Interface Module produces a monochrome Composite Video signal via
  an RCA-style jack.  This higher-resolution signal produces crisp, clear 80
  column text on 80-column monochrome composite video monitors.
 
 mailto:buesch@srv.net (Brent Buescher, Jr.) writes:
 
 "The best monitor for an Atari 8 bit that is readily available today would be
 a television with an S-video input---these tend to be large and high-quality,
 so the s-video input is the deciding factor there. You'll have to build the
 cable yourself, and if you have an XL you'll want to do the Super Video
 upgrade that Ben Poehland published in Atari Classics a few years ago---this
 puts the chroma signal back on the pin that it should be and cleans up the
 video signal enormously. It's really more of a fix than an upgrade.
 
 I use a commodore split-video monitor.  They work great and are
 cheap-to-reasonable when you can find them."
 
 Jerry Jessop, mailto:jjessop1@home.com explains why French Ataris produce 
 fewer colors:
 
 "I will tell you why it only has monochrome out, because it's SECAM and a
 SECAM GTIA was never produced. The PAL GTIA is used in France and the Lum
 outputs are run into an onboard encoder to produce a "psudo" color depending
 on the Luminance output, composite only. This is why a SECAM VCS or 800 has
 nowhere near the same number of colors (16) availible as a PAL or NTSC unit
 (256).
 
 The FGTIA was never completed as the market size did not warrant the expense.
 The largest SECAM market is not France but the Soviet Union (former) and in
 80-84 sales of these items there were not possible."
 
 ------------------------------
 
 Subject: 13.1) What's the best DOS for the Atari?
 
 This is a matter of opinion, but general consensus is that all 8-bit Atari
 users should treat themselves to either MYDOS or SpartaDOS to appreciate the
 power of the system.
 
 Either MYDOS or SpartaDOS will work with almost any disk drive, up to 8
 drives or hard disk partitions, and ramdisk.
  
 MYDOS is modelled after Atari DOS 2.0S/2.5, but provides subdirectory and
 hard-drive support.  MYDOS 4.53 is freeware from Wordmark Systems (Charles
 Marslett and Bob Puff). There are two versions of MYDOS 4.53, one uses 3 digit
 sector numbers where possible, known as 4.53/3; the other, known as 4.53/4,
 uses 4 digits minimum.  Complete documentation about the disk formats and
 commands, as well as the source code, is available.
 
 SpartaDOS is a completely different command-line DOS modelled after MS-DOS,
 though it is perfectly capable of reading all Atari DOS and MYDOS disks.
 SpartaDOS 3.2g is disk-based; SpartaDOS X 4.22 is cartridge-based and includes
 many additional features. SpartaDOS is available from Fine Tooned Engineering
 (see companion vendor/developer list).  SpartaDOS 3.3a and 3.3b were rewritten
 by Stephen J. Carden for use with BBS Express PRO!.
 
 It is recommended that all 8-bit Atari users own at least DOS 2.5 for complete
 compatibility with existing software, and then choose either SpartaDOS or MYDOS
 as they see fit.  DOS 2.5, MYDOS and SpartaDOS are all available on the
 archives.
   filenames:   Os/dos25.arc (DOS 2.5)
                Fte/fte32g.arc (SpartaDOS 3.2)
                Os/mydos453.dcm (MYDOS - latest version)
                Os/mydos45m.arc (MYDOS - latest complete doc's)
 
 Any other versions of DOS all 8-bit Atari users should be aware of??
 
 ------------------------------
 
 Subject: 13.2) What hardware has Atari created in the 8-bit computer line?
 
 Computers:
 400 Home Computer      (1979) 8/16K, membrane keyboard, 400/800 OS
 800 Home Computer      (1979) 8/16/48K, two cartridge slots, 400/800 OS
 1200XL Home Computer   (1982) 64K, early XL OS, F1-F4 keys, 4 LEDs
 600XL Home Computer    (1983) 16K, BASIC, PBI, XL OS
 800XL Home Computer    (1983) 64K, BASIC, PBI, XL OS
 65XE Personal Computer (1985) same as 800XL minus PBI
 130XE Personal Computer(1985) same as 65XE with 128K plus ECI
 800XE Personal Computer(1987?)same as 130XE but 64K. Mostly eastern Europe.
 XE Game System         (1987) same as 65XE plus Missile Command, detach keybd
 
 Peripherals:
 410 Program Recorder       -Japan and Hong Kong versions.  410a - Taiwan version
 810 Disk Drive             -SS/SD 90K with DOS 1 or DOS 2.0S,MPI&Tandon vers.
 820 40-Column Printer      -
 822 Thermal Printer        -40 col.
 825 80-Column Printer      -req. 850
 830 Acoustic Modem         -300 baud req. 850, with Telelink I software
 835 Direct Connect Modem   -300 baud, with Telelink II software
 850 Interface Module       -4 9-pin serial, 1 15-pin parallel ports, beige &
                             black metal versions
 1010 Program Recorder      -Sanyo and Chelco versions
 1020 Color Printer         -40 col.(80 by command) print/plot in 4 colors
 1025 80-Column Printer     -7-pin dot matrix
 1027 Letter-Quality Printer-80 col. letter quality =Mann-Tally Riteman LQ
 1029 Printer               -7-pin dot matrix, same as Commodore MPS-801
 1030 Direct Connect Modem  -300 baud, with ModemLink software. 2 SIO ports
 1050 Disk Drive            -SS/ED 128K with DOS 3 or DOS 2.5
 1064                       -64K RAM module for 600XL
 XC11 Program Recorder
 XC12 Program Recorder
 XM301 Modem                -300 baud, w/ XE Term software. Permanent SIO cable
 XMM801 Printer             -80 col.  Ribbon: Mannesman/Tally MS80
 XDM121 Printer             -80 col.letter quality. Ribbon: Silver Reed CF130
 XF551 Disk Drive           -DS/DD 360K with DOS XE
 XEP80 Interface Module     -80 col. video display and DB25 parallel port
 SX212 Modem                -1200 baud, rarely with SX-Express! package
 
 Atari 8-bit vaporware computers: (note some are more vaporous than others)
 800D     (Developers Bus System)
 600      600XL, all black case
 1000     Sweet 16 Project, lower end model.  Became the 1200XL
 1000-X   Sweet 16 Project, higher end model.  Became the 1200XL
 1200     1200XL internally, many slight cosmetic differences
 1200XLS  1200XL Show prototype, top-mounted cartridge slot
 800XLF   late 800XL with a redesigned motherboard, plus the FREDDY chip
 1250XLD  Earlier name for the 1450XLD
 1400XL   800XL plus modem, speech synth.(looks like a 1200XL)
 1450XL   1400XL plus room for 2 internal 5.25" floppy drives
 1450XLD  1400XL plus 5.25" floppy drive
 1600XL   ????
 65XEP    65XE plus 3.5" floppy drive, 5" green monitor
 65XEM    65XE plus AMIE/AMY sound chip
 
 Atari 8-bit vaporware peripherals:(note some are more vaporous than others)
 815 Dual Disk Drive     -2 x SS/DD 180K with DOS 2.0D
 1055                    -a 1050 (SS/ED) with a 3.5" mechanism
 1060 CP/M Add-On Module -Z-80 CPU, 64K RAM, CP/M 2.2 OS, 80 column display
 1090 XL Expansion System-5 PBI slots, CP/M/MS-DOS/Apple II compatible
 XM128                   -12" green monitor w/ built-in 80-column card
 XC1411                  -composite 14" color monitor
 XF521                   -5.25" floppy drive - 1050 compatible, in XE style
 XF351                   -a 3.5" drive.  
 XC35                    -an XF551 with a 3.5" mechanism
 XTM201                  -non-impact printer
 XTC201                  -non-impact color printer
 
 ------------------------------
 
 Subject: 13.3) What are the power-supply requirements for my Atari
                components?
 
 Thanks to Matthias Belitz, mailto:matz@kawo2.rwth-aachen.de for the European
 data in this section.  I need more international help!
 
 As with the rest of this FAQ list, please let me know if any of this
 information conflicts with the units you have.
 
 The most important information is the voltage (in volts) required, and
 whether you need a transformer (AC output) or an adapter (DC output).  The
 power (in watts) and current (in amperes) specifications of the original
 equipment as presented here should be regarded as minimum values.
 Higher-than-specified power and current capacities are entirely usable,
 and often preferable because such supplies run cooler and last longer.
 
 Relevant law of physics:
 Power (in watts) = current (in amps) * voltage (in volts)
 
 N O R T H  A M E R I C A: INPUT = 115-120 V AC, 50/60Hz
 ========================
 9 V AC  5.4 VA  (600 mA)  Atari#CO62195  transformer:
   1030
 9 V AC  ???? VA  (??? A)  Atari#CO61516  transformer:
   1010
 9 V AC  15.3 VA  (1.7 A)  Atari#CO14319  transformer:
   400,800,822,850,1010,1200XL
 9 V AC  18 VA  (2.0 A)  Atari#CA014748  transformer:
   400,800,810,822,850,1010,1200XL
 9 V AC  18 VA  (2.0 A)  Atari#CA016804  transformer:
   400,800,810,822,850,1010,1200XL
 9 V AC  31 VA  (3.4 A)  Atari#CO17945  transformer:
   400,800,810,822,850,1010,1200XL,1020,1050,XF551
 9 V AC  50 VA  (5.6 A)  Atari#CA017964  transformer:
   400,800,810,822,850,1010,1200XL,1020,1050,XF551
 9.5 V AC  40 VA  (4.2 A)  Atari#CO61636  transformer:
   1027,1090XL
 24 V AC  3.6 VA  (150 mA)  Atari#CA016751  transformer:
   830
 5 V DC  1.0 A  (5.0 W)  Atari#CO70042  adapter:
   65XE,XE Game System
 5 V DC  1.5 A  (7.5 W)  Atari#CO61982  adapter:
   600XL,800XL,65XE,130XE,XE Game System                    
 5 V DC  1.5 A  (7.5 W)  Atari#CA024814  adapter:
   600XL,800XL,65XE,130XE,XE Games System
 5 V DC  ??? A  (??? W)  Atari#CO81982  adapter:
   XL/XE
 6 V DC  300 mA  (1.8 W)  Atari#???????  adapter:
   "410P" (vaporware)
 9 V DC  200 mA  (1.8 W) adapter:
   MPP1000C (the modem from MPP, interfaces via a joystick port)
 9 V DC  500 mA  (4.5 W)  Atari#CO16353  adapter:
   XEP80,SX212,2600
 9 V DC  500 mA  (4.5 W)  Atari#CA014034  adapter:
   XEP80,SX212,2600
 9.3 V DC  1.93 A  (18 W)  Atari#CO18187  adapter:
   Indus GT,5200
 11.5 V DC  1.95 A  (22 W)  Atari#CA019141  adapter:
   Indus GT,5200
 5 V / 12 V DC  1.1 A  (5.5 W / 13.2 W)  Atari#CO62297/DV1450  adapter:
   1400XL,1450XLD
 
 E U R O P E  (and elsewhere?) INPUT = 220 V AC, 50 Hz
 =============================
 5 V DC  1,8 A,          #CO61763-107: 800XL
 5 V DC  1,5 A  (7,5 W)  #CO61763-34 : 800XL (U.K., 240 V AC in)
 5 V DC  1.5 A  (7.5 W)  #CO61763-11 : 65XE,800XL,800XE
 two ones with the same part number, but different cases and different
 input Values :#1, 65XE (Poland, made in Taiwan), Input 22 VA
               #2, 800XL, Input 26 VA
 9 V AC  27 VA  (3.0 A)   CO60592-34 : 1050
 9V AC 0,5 A,             CO#61516   : 1010
 9,3V AC, 1,66 A         CO# (not printed), FW 6799: 800
 
 
 These draw their power from the SIO +5 V:
   XM301 (60 mA),XC12,ICD/FTe P:R:Connection
 
 Draws power from the 600XL PBI:
   1064
 
 These have built-in power supplies (plug directly into the wall):
   410,815,820,825,1025,1029,XMM801,XDM121
 
 The power supply requirements for the following are still needed:
 ??? V DC  ???? A  (???? W)  Atari#CA060535  adapter:
   835
 
 XC11 program recorder (no brick needed -> internal or SIO source?)
 
 OTHER:
 The ICD/FTe Multi I/O (MIO), all versions, can use both AC and DC supplies.
 But stick to voltages of at least 6.2-7.2 V.
 
 ------------------------------
 
 Subject: 13.4) What are the pinouts for the...?
 
 Serial I/O (SIO) Port (all machines):
    2   4   6   8  10  12
  1   3   5   7   9  11  13
 1. Clock Input             8. Motor Control
 2. Clock Output            9. Proceed
 3. Data Input             10. +5V/Ready
 4. Ground                 11. Audio Input
 5. Data Output            12. +12V (400,800 only. 1400XL/1450XLD?)
 6. Ground                 13. Interrupt
 7. Command
 
 Cartridge Slot ("Left" slot on all machines; "Right" slot on 800 only):
 A  B  C  D  E  F  H  J  K  L  M  N  P  R  S
 1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9 10 11 12 13 14 15
  1. ~S4(Left) R/~W late(Right) A. RD4(Left) B02(Right)
  2. A3                         B. GND
  3. A2                         C. A4
  4. A1                         D. A5
  5. A0                         E. A6
  6. D4                         F. A7
  7. D5                         H. A8
  8. D2                         J. A9
  9. D1                         K. A12
 10. D0                         L. D3
 11. D6                         M. D7
 12. ~S5(Left) ~S4(Right)       N. A11
 13. +5V                       P. A10
 14. RD5(Left) RD4(Right)       R. R/~W
 15. ~CCTL                      S. B02
 
 Enhanced Cartridge Interface (ECI) (130XE and 800XE only):
 A  B  C  D  E  F  H
 1  2  3  4  5  6  7
 A. Reserved   1. ~EXSEL
 B. ~IRQ       2. ~RST
 C. ~HALT      3. ~D1XX
 D. A13        4. ~MPD
 E. A14        5. Audio
 F. A15        6. ~REF
 H. GND        7. +5V
 
 Monitor Jack (all but 400, North American 600XL, XE Game System):
 3       1
  5     4
     2
 1. Composite Luminance  (not on North American 600XL's)
 2. Ground
 3. Audio Output
 4. Composite Video
 5. Composite Chroma (not on 800XL,1200XL; grounded on 600XL)
 
 Power Adapter Plug (all but 400,800,1200XL,1400XL,1450XLD):
   7   6
 3       1
  5     4
     2
 1. +5V
 2. Shield
 3. Ground
 4. +5V
 5. Ground
 6. +5V
 7. Ground
 
 Controller Port (4 on 400/800, 2 on all others):
 1   2   3   4   5
   6   7   8   9
 1. (Joystick) Forward Input
 2. (Joystick) Back Input
 3. (Joystick) Left Input
 4. (Joystick) Right Input
 5. B Potentiometer Input
 6. Trigger Input / Light Pen Input. Port 4 only on 400
 7. +5V
 8. Ground
 9. A Potentiometer Input
 
 Parallel Bus Interface (PBI) (600XL and 800XL only):
  1  3  5  7  9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 41 43 45 47 49
  2  4  6  8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50
   1. GND ground                2. External select
   3. A0 Address output         4. A1
   5. A2                        6. A3
   7. A4                        8. A5
   9. A6                       10. GND
  11. A7                       12. A8
  13. A9                       14. A10
  15. A11                      16. A12
  17. A13                      18. A14
  19. GND                      20. A15
  21. D0 Data (bidirectional)  22. D1
  23. D2                       24. D3
  25. D4                       26. D5
  27. D6                       28. D7
  29. GND                      30. GND
  31. Phase 2 clock output     32. GND
  33. NC Reserved              34. Reset output
  35. (IRQ) Interrupt request  36. Ready input
  37. NC                       38. External decoder output
  39. NC                       40. Refresh output
  41. Column address output    42. GND
  43. Math pack disable input  44. Row addr strobe
  45. GND                      46. Latch read/write out
  47. NC (+5V on 600XL only)   48. NC (+5V on 600XL only, used to power 1064)
  49. Audio input              50. GND
 
 R1: Serial port DB9P (850 Interface Module):
 5   4   3   2   1                      ____________________________
   9   8   7   6                       / DB25P
 1. DTR - Data Terminal Ready    (out) +  20
 2. CRX - Signal (carrier) Detect (in) +  8
 3. XMT - Transmitted Data       (out) +  2
 4. RCV - Received Data           (in) +  3
 5. GND - Signal Ground                +  7
 6. DSR - Data Set Ready          (in) +  6
 7. RTS - Request to Send        (out) +  4
 8. CTS - Clear to Send           (in) +  5
 No connection to shield               + Frame - to the shield wire
 
 R2: Serial port (850 Interface Module):
 5   4   3   2   1
   9   8   7   6
 1. DTR
 3. Send Data
 4. Receive Data
 5. Signal Ground
 6. DSR
 
 R3: Serial port (850 Interface Module):
 5   4   3   2   1
   9   8   7   6
 1. DTR
 3. Send Data
 4. Receive
 5. Signal Ground
 7. RTS
 8. -8 Volts
 
 R4: Serial port (850 Interface Module):
 5   4   3   2   1
   9   8   7   6
 1. Send Data +
 3. Send Data -
 7. Receive Data +
 9. Receive Data - (20 mA)
 
 P: Parallel port (850 Interface Module) DB15P:
       8  7  6  5  4  3  2  1  ____________________________
        15 14 13 12 11 10  9  / 36 pin Centronics (male)
 1. Data Strobe               +   1
 2. D0                        +   2
 3. D1                        +   3
 4. D2                        +   4
 5. D3                        +   5
 6. D4                        +   6
 7. D5                        +   7
 8. D6                        +   8
 9. Data Pull up (+5v)        +
 10. -                        +
 11. Ground                   +  16
 12. Fault                    +  32
 13. Busy                     +  11
 14. -                        +
 15. D7                       +   9
 No connection to shield      + Frame - to the shield wire
 
 P: Parallel port (XEP80 Interface Module):
     13  12  11  10   9   8   7   6   5   4   3   2   1
       25  24  23  22  21  20  19  18  17  16  15  14
     1. Strobe
   2-9. Parallel Data
    10. Not Used
    11. Busy
 12-17. Not Used
 18-25. Ground
 
 ------------------------------
 
 Subject: 13.5) What BBS software can be used on the Atari?
 
 This section mostly by mailto:winston@merk.com (Winston Smith)
 
   o  A.M.I.S. BBS --  The A.C.E. Message Information Service.
                       This BBS was written in BASIC by the Atari Computer
 Enthusiasts computer club (was it the Michigan chapter?).  It included
 designs for a ring-detector.  You needed a sector editor and had to
 allocate message space by hand, hex byte by hex byte.
 
   o  FoReM BBS --  Friends of Rickey Moose BBS.
                         At the time, there were a lot of BBSes around
 called things such as "FORUM-80" and "BULLET-80", ergo the name.  FoReM BBS
 was the first truly RBBS-like BBS for the ATARI 8-bit.  It was programmed
 in BASIC and was somewhat crashy.  I think that this is the
 great-grandparent of the FOREM-XE BBSes that survive today.
 
 Matt Singer, mailto:msinger@oe.fau.edu writes:
 FoReM BBS derived from an early AMIS. When multiple message areas were
 added the name was extended to FoReM 26M.  Then, When OSS released BASIC
 XL the program was rehacked and called FoReM XL... Bill Dorsey wrote most
 of the Assembler routines (where is he now?).
 
   o  ABBCS --  The ANTIC Bulletin Board Construction Set.
                The user design of the ABBCS was very good.  It sported
 features such as intra-line editors.  Unfortunately, the coding of the
 ABBCS was really poor.  You could practically blow on your keyboard and
 crash this BBS.  The BBS would sometimes crash several times a day.
 
   o  NITE-LITE BBS --  Paul Swanson's BBS with RAM disk.
                        Paul Swanson was a programmer from the Boston,
 Massachusetts, USA, area.  I'm not sure whether his BBS for the
 Atari 8-bit has been placed into the public domain or not.  This BBS was
 the first to support a RAMdisk, which Paul Swanson called a "V:" device
 for "virtual disk".  This BBS was written in Atari BASIC and required a
 joystick hardware "dongle" device.  This was notable as being one of the
 first Atari 8-BIT BBSes that could actually go for a week without having
 to be rebooted.  Pointers to the message base were kept in an Atari "very
 long string" (for which Atari BASIC is famous).  The BBS would only have
 problems (for the most part) if this string became corrupted.
 
   o ATKEEP --  An Atari 8-bit version of CITADEL BBS.
                I believe that AT-KEEP, like FOREM-XE, requires the use of
 the commercial BASIC XE cartridge to run.  This BBS program was very
 popular around Louisiana, USA, from what I understand.
 
   o Benton's SMART BBS --  BBS written in BASIC by Marco Benton.
                            This program is written entirely in BASIC.  It
 expects to be running under a SpartaDOS environment.  This was a problem
 until very recently, when the disk-based version of SpartaDOS was
 re-released as shareware. This BBS program uses a "modem clock string"
 rather than an R-Time 8 cartridge in order to retrieve the current time.
 It also comes with an Atari BASIC game door called "Sabotage".
 
   o FOREM-XE --  FOREM using BASIC XE.
                  This version of FOREM BBS requires the commercial BASIC XE
 cartridge in order to run.  It is in the public domain and can import and
 export messages from the Atari PRO! BBS EXPRESS-NET (7-bit text only,
 control ATASCII graphics are reserved for message data-structure bytes).
 FOREM-XE BBS is still currently in use as we speak, and may be reached via
 the PRO! EXPRESS-NET as long as the cross-networking "transnet" is still in
 effect.
 
   o The BBS Express  --  PRO! BBS demo program.
                          This is the public domain version of EXPRESS!-BBS,
 which is the Keith Ledbetter companion project of the EXPRESS!-TERM
 terminal program of days gone by.  I am not familiar with this program.  I
 think that it is written in Action! and only supports XMODEM Checksum
 transfers.  I have never called or seen this program demonstrated.
 
   o OASIS JUNIOR III --  OASIS BBS demo program.
                          OASIS JUNIOR III is the --ALL MACHINE LANGUAGE--
 demo version of the OASIS BBS program.  OASIS is very crash-resistant and
 comes with a "dial out" screen so that the Sysop can use the BBS as a
 terminal program to call and fetch files without having to bring the BBS
 down and reload a terminal program.  OASIS supports "Door programs" which
 it refers to as "OASIS PAL modules".  This OASIS demo module comes with an
 excellent message system.  The OASIS file system is one of the most
 complicated that I have ever seen.  It consists of "file libraries" with
 suites of "file types".  There is quite a bit of overhead involved in
 performing a download (which may be a good thing, as it discourages file
 hogs).  There is a commercial version of OASIS called "OASIS IV" that
 performs networking.  There was an OASIS network between Boston,
 Massachusets, USA and Murfreesboro(SP?), Tennessee, USA.  Occasionally word
 of the OASIS IV developers reaches the network from New Zealand or Canada.
 
   o Frank Walters BBS --  I know nothing about this BBS except that Frank
                           Walters wrote it.
 
   o Carina BBS -- a product of Shadow Software.  See the Vendor list.
 
   o BBS Express! Professional -- a product of K-Products.  See Vendor List.
 
   o OASIS IV -- a product of ???
 
 ------------------------------
 
 Subject: 13.6) What versions of Atari BASIC or the CTIA/GTIA chip do I have?
 
 Atari BASIC:
 
 At the READY prompt, enter "? PEEK(43234)"
 
 If the result is:  You have Revision:
      162                  A
      96                   B
      234                  C
 
 Freddy Offenga, mailto:offen300@hio.tem.nhl.nl adds:
 
 there's another good answer (IMO):
 
 You can also take a look at the part numbers on the IC's
 inside your Atari and compare them with the numbers from
 the following table:
 
 Part#                  Version
 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~
 CO12402 + CO14502         A
 CO60302A                  B
 CO24947A                  C
 
 
 CTIA or GTIA installed?
 
 In BASIC, type POKE 623,64 [RETURN] and if the screen blackens, you have the
 GTIA chip.  If it stays blue, you have the old CTIA chip.
 
 By the way, apparently no CTIA-equipped Ataris were shipped to Europe.
 
 ------------------------------
 
 Subject: 13.7) Which versions of the Operating System (OS) are there?
 
 This section written by Freddy Offenga, mailto:offen300@hio.tem.nhl.nl
 
 The following Operating Systems exist for the Atari 8-bit:
 
 Rev.   System(s)   Models    Size   Part Nr(s)
 ~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
 A      NTSC        400/800   10kB   CO12499B, CO14599B, 12399B (*)
 A      PAL         400/800   10kB   CO15199, CO15299, CO12399B
 B      NTSC        400/800   10kB   (?)
 B      PAL         400/800   10kB   (?) (*)
 1 A    NTSC/PAL    1200XL    16kB   CO60616A, CO60617A
 1 B    NTSC/PAL    1200XL    16kB   CO60616B, CO60617B (?) (*)
 1      NTSC/PAL    600XL     16kB   CO62024
 2      NTSC/PAL    XL/XE     16kB   CO61598B
 3      NTSC/PAL    XE        16kB   C300717
 4      NTSC/PAL    XEGS      16kB   C101687
 
 (?) more information or confirmation required
 
 (*) these versions should exist, although I've not seen them.
     If you have one (or more?) of these, please contact me.
 
 NOTE:
 The 400/800 O.S's consist of three ROMs (two 4kB and one 2kB).
 
 ------------------------------
 
 Subject: 13.8) What games support 4 simultaneous players on the 400/800?
 
 The following games support 4 player head-to-head play.  Remember, only the
 400 and 800 computer models sport 4 controller ports.
 
 Asteroids, Basketball, Breakout, Dandy, M.U.L.E., Maze War, Silicon Warrior,
 Survivor.
 
 Thanks to mailto:jlodoen@shell.portal.com (Jeff M Lodoen) for initial info.
 
 ------------------------------
 
 Subject: 13.9) Why should I disconnect the 810/1050 power supply before 
                connecting or disconnecting SIO cables?
 
 Rich Mier writes:
 
 You've been plugging and unplugging the SIO cable with the 1050 power pack
 plugged in, right?  That's a no-no.  Most of the time it's Okay, but about 1
 in 10, 20 times, it will blow out 'U-1'.  It's a CA/LM 3086 I.C. at the right,
 rear of the main board.  A 14 pin DIL chip.  Actually it is an array of 5
 transistors.
 
 Unplug the power pack from the 1050, then unplug the SIO cable.  Power can be
 ON on the CPU.  The problem has to do with the secondary winding of the Power
 Pack.  Remember, the problem only occurs 1 out of 10 - 20 times that you do
 it, not all the time.
 
 It doesn't really matter if the 1050 Transformer has power on or off, it
 'Might' happen if plugged into the 1050.  It is really bad on 810's.
 
 One thing, if the system has been turned off for, oh say, 5 - 10 minutes it
 won't matter.  By then all the capacitors should be bled(sc?) to 0 volts.
 
 ------------------------------
 
 Subject: 13.10) What is Omnimon?
 
 --This section was written by Scott Charles, mailto:scharles@blast.net
 
 Omnimon is a add in board for the Atari 400/800 series of computers and
 a replacement OS chip for the xl/xe series of computers. The original Omnimon
 board fit onto the OS board in the 800 series and had a switch attached to
 it to disable the board. The 400 series required you to bend the circuit
 board into a right angle for it to fit inside the 400's case. (It was
 designed to do this.). The Xl/Xe version replaces the OS Rom chip inside
 the computer with one that contains the Omnimon code, and a revised OS to
 make the XL more compatible (no translator disks needed).
 
 Omnimon itself is a machine language monitor residing from $C000-$CFFF, with
 a few variations. It was designed in 1981 by David C. Young (who also wrote
 Cartcopy, a copier for the right slot of the 800) of CDY Consulting in Texas.
 The first software revision of Omnimon had a few basic commands and was only
 4K long, only for the 400/800. The second revision required the addition of
 a bank select switch, and was 8K long. Since it was addressed by the 400/800
 as 4K, when you needed to use the code in the other bank, all the text on the
 screen flips upside down, you flip the switch and hit any key. The Xl and Xe
 versions of Omnimon do their bank selecting through the normal XL port for
 this function, so it is seamless.
 
 So what can you use Omnimon for? Its main claim to fame is its ability to 
 interupt any running program by pressing and holding the SELECT-OPTION-RESET
 keys. Depending on the sequence you press determines what kind of warm boot
 the Atari does. SELECT+RESET does NO warm boot, preserving the stack and flag
 values of the 6502. OPTION+RESET allows a warm boot (as if you had just
 pressed RESET) and interupts the vector at $C (initialation vector).
 
 I think you can see where we are going with this - Omnimon was developed as
 a machine language developer's tool, much in the same way that the Happy
 modification was developed for legitimate backups. I.E. far more people use
 both products for software piracy. If you have an Omnimon! in your machine
 and you try to boot up an Electronic Arts program, for example, you will get
 a message that says "REMOVE ROM AT $C000", and the program hangs. (Hence,the
 need for the disable switch on the 400/800 version. There is no way to
 disable the xl/xe version, just switch it to an alternative OS.) The 400/800
 version, since the disable switch just deselects the mapping of Omnimon to
 $c000 area, can be switched on and off at will.
 
 I myself did not know what Omnimon was used for until I was using a sector
 editor on a program called Pharaoh's Pyramid, from Master Control Software.
 On it is a sector that reads, "REMOVE OMNIMON YOU DIRTY PIRATE". This got me
 to thinking, what does that mean? After about 5 months of playing around
 with the Omnimon board, I figured out how to use it to pirate software.
 In fact, it can be used to make most boot disks into binary files, and remove
 copy protection from countless more.
 
 At the risk of sounding melodramatic, I can safely say that Omnimon hastened
 the demise of the Atari 8 bit computer by 2-3 years, because of its power.
 
 ------------------------------
 
 Subject: 13.11) What is the difference between NTSC and PAL machines?
 
 Wayne Booth, mailto:trek@ihgp15.ih.att.com writes:
 
 The differences with PAL and NTSC have to do with the number of lines
 displayed on the screen and whether they are using 50 or 60 Hertz.
 
 If I remember correctly, I believe PAL has 625 lines/screen and they
 refresh the screen 50 times a second doing 1/2 the lines each refresh
 so they effectively repaint the screen 25 times a second.  NTSC is
 525 lines/screen with a 60 times a second refresh - again only half
 the lines each refresh so a 30 times a second frame rate.  This
 would change the amount of time available during vertical sync pulse,
 and the number of lines that need to be redrawn each time.
 
 ------------------------------
 
 Subject: 13.12) What programming languages are available for the Atari?
 
 Revision : 1.0
 Date.... : 4/20/1997
 
  ==============================================================
    !!!! This section is under construction - HELP WANTED !!!!
  --------------------------------------------------------------
   The goal is to give information about all available languages
   for the Atari 8-bit computer. This information will include;
   title, last version, author, date and a short description.
   It would also be nice to know how to get it and where to get
   more information (like reference cards, reviews and such).
 
   Some resources:
   - The Multi-lingual Atari, Analog magazine 45, August 1986
   - Assembler Interchange Format, Project description
     Version 2.2, 2-2-1997, Freddy Offenga
 
   If you like to help or if you've something to add already,
   just contact me. There's still a lot work to be done....
   Freddy Offenga, email-to: offen300@hio.tem.nhl.nl
  ==============================================================
 There are quite a lot! To get some structure in this section it's
 divided into the following catagories;
         a) ASSEMBLER
         b) BASIC
         c) C
         d) PASCAL
         e) LISP
         f) FORTH
         g) PILOT
         h) LOGO
         i) All the rest
 
 [D]  = available on disk
 [C]  = available on cartridge
 
 a) ASSEMBLER
     - 130XE+ Makro Assembler v2.2, 1992 (Torsten Karwoth) [D]
       Two pass 6502 assembler/editor. Supports extra RAM.
       Highly compatible with Atmas II.
     - Alfasm, Version 1.0, 1990 (Jeff Williams) [D]
       Supports 65816 instructions (for the Turbo-816 upgrade
       from DataQue Software). This assember is also known as
       the Turbo-Assembler/16.
     - Atari Assembler/Editor, 1981 (Atari) [C]
       Two pass 6502 assembler/editor.
     - Atari Macro Assembler, 1981 (Atari) [D]
       Two pass 6502 assembler/editor.
     - Atmas II Makroassembler, 1985 (Peter Finzel, Hofacker) [D]
       Macro assembler with integrated editor and monitor.
     - Bibo Assembler, 1986 (Compy-shop) [D]
     - Datasm/65 assembler, Version 2.0, 1981 (DataSoft) [D]
       Two-pass 6502 assembler.
     - EASMD, Version 1.0, 1981 (OSS) [D]
     - MAC/65 Macro Assembler, 1982 (OSS) [D/C]
       Two pass macro assembler/editor.
     - MAE, 1996 [D]
       Supports 6502 and 65816 mnemonics.
     - Nasm65 assembler, 1992 (Nat!) [D]
       Highly portable cross assembler (written in C). Initially
       made for the Atari ST. Highly compatible with MAC/65.
     - PC-65 Assembler, Version 1.0 beta, 1996 (Jan Feenstra) [D]
       Two pass 6502 cross assembler for the PC. The source
       format is highly compatible with the ST-65 assembler.
     - Synassembler, 1982 (Steve Hales, Synapse Soft) [D]
       Two pass 6502 assembler.
     - ST-65 Assembler, 1991 (A. Stauffenberg, F.Offenga) [D]
       A cross assembler for the Atari ST (written in 68000 asm).
 
 b) BASIC
     - Advan BASIC Compiler (Advan Language Designs)
     - Atari 800 Basic, Version 1.0, 1981 (Microsoft) [D]
     - Atari BASIC, Rev.C, 1983 (Atari) [C]
     - Atari Microsoft BASIC II (Atari) [C]
     - BASIC A+, Version 3.05, 1981 (OSS) [D]
     - BASIC XL (OSS) [C]
     - BASIC XE, 1985 (OSS) [C]
     - Turbo Basic XL (Frank Ostrowski, Happy Computer) [D]
       Interpreter, Version 1.5, 1985
       Compiler, Version 1.1, 1985
 
 c) C
     - ACE C (John Palevich & Ralph Walden) [D]
       This is a newer version of 'Deep Blue C'.
     - C/65, Tiny C (OSS)
     - C65
     - CC65, 1989 (John R. Dunning) [D]
       This public domain package includes; compiler, linker,
       assembler and object librarian.
     - CC8
     - Deep Blue C, Version 1.2, 1982 (John Palevich, APX) [D]
       Drawn from Ron Cain's public domain C-compiler.
     - DVC C, Version 1.01, 1985 (Ralph E. Walden) [D]
     - LightSpeed C, Version 1.08, 1986
       (Clearstar Softechnology) [D]
 
 d) PASCAL
     - Atari Pascal, Version 1.0, 1982 (APX-20102) [D]
     - Draper Pascal, Version 1.5, 1983 (Norm Draper) [D]
     - Kyan Pascal, 1986 (Kyan Software) [D]
       Package includes; compiler, linker and assembler.
 
 e) LISP
     - INTER-LISP/65, Version 2.1, 1981 [D]
       (Special Software Systems, DataSoft)
 
 f) FORTH
     - ValForth (Valpar International)
     - Extended fig-Forth (APX-20029)
     - fig-Forth, Version 1.1 [D]
     - fun-Forth (APX-20146)
     - Grafik-FORTH
     - QS Forth (Quality Software)
 
 g) PILOT
     - Atari PILOT, 1980 (Atari) [C]
 
 h) LOGO
     - Atari LOGO, 1983 (LCSI, Atari) [C]
 
 i) All the rest
     - Action!, 1983 (OSS) [D/C]
     - Quick, Version 2.0, 1990 (Raindorf Soft) [D]
     
 ------------------------------
 
 Subject: 13.13) What is the Atari XEP80 Interface Module?
 
 This section written by: mailto:raukamp@dame.de (Thomas Raukamp)
 
 Since the development of  the Atari 8-bit line of computers in 1979, users
 wanted better text displays than the default 40x24. There has been some
 attempts to satisfy this need, like the Austin-Franklin board or the Ace
 80/80xl cartridge. For more informations about these modifications read The
 Atari 8-bit Hardware Upgrade FAQ from David A. Paterson.
  
 The Atari XEP80 Interface Module is Atari's entry to the 80 column field. It
 lets a XL, XE, 400 or 800 computer system display a full 80 columns across
 your monitor screen. The XEP80 provides a 256-character wide by 25-line
 display window. Up to 80 characters are displayed horizontally at once, and
 you can scroll horizontally all the way to the 256th character, depending on
 the application you're running. The XEP80 is connected to your system via a
 joystick port.
  
 The XEP80 Module interprets commands from the computer for screen display or
 output to a printer. The module is supplied with an industry-standard 8-bit
 parallel port  so you can connect a parallel printer to your Atari 8-bit (I
 even use a HP LaserJet IV on my 130XE ;) ).
  
 All programs that use the standard screen call (E:) should be compatible with
 the XEP80 Module. The software provided by Atari supports a 320x200 graphics
 mode - this mode only support direct bit images. Note that you can't use all
 of the standard graphic capabilities of the Atari anymore.
  
 Although Atari recommends a monochrome monitor for usage with the XEP80, it
 runs fine with any type of composite monitor. The output looks great on my
 Commodore 1084 for example.
  
 Along with the module comes a software-package containing an AUTORUN.SYS file,
 which is the XEP80 handler. If you want to use the module with an application
 that is compatible with the XEP80, which has it's own AUTORUN.SYS file, you
 can append the application's AUTORUN.SYS on the module's AUTORUN.SYS.
 
 ------------------------------
 
 Subject: 14.1) What vendors, developers, or publishers support the 8-bit
                Atari?
 
 See the "Atari 8-Bit Computers Vendors and Developers List."
 
 Available via these locations and Usenet FAQ archives everywhere:
 
 http://www.faqs.org/faqs/atari-8-bit/vendev/
 
 ftp://rtfm.mit.edu/pub/faqs/atari-8-bit/vendev
 
 news:comp.sys.atari.8bit     news:comp.answers     news:news.answers
 
 Or you can always ask me for a copy at mailto:mcurrent@carleton.edu
 
 ------------------------------
 
 Subject: 14.2) Where is my nearest 8-bit Atari BBS?
 
 InfoMan (Trevor Holyoak), mailto:infoman@poboxes.com maintains a list 
 called "Atari 8bit Support BBS's."
 
 http://www.holyoak.com/atari/ATARIBBS.TXT
 
 ------------------------------
 
 Subject: 14.3) Where is my nearest 8-bit Atari user group?
 
 Rich Tietjens, mailto:atari@teleport.com maintains an Atari computer user
 group list at:
 
 http://www.teleport.com/~atari/ugbbs.htm 
 
 ------------------------------
 
 Subject: 14.4) I'm new to the Atari.  How do I use this thing?
 
 "The Unofficial Atari 8-bit New User, Emulator Help FAQ" is maintained by
 mailto:kendrick@zippy.sonoma.edu (Bill Kendrick).  Bill and his FAQ are
 excellent sources for information on basic usage of the 8-bit Atari, and for
 information on the 8-bit Atari emulators which run on other computing
 platforms.
 
 If you would like a text-only version you can send e-mail to:
 
   mailto:kendrick@zippy.sonoma.edu
 
 with the following as the subject:
 
   send emulator faq
 
 Note that the "better" version (which the text version is based on) is:
 
   http://zippy.sonoma.edu/kendrick/nbs/new_and_emu.html
 
 ------------------------------
 
 Subject: 14.5) Can I use an emulator to run my old Atari software on my new
    computer?
 
 "The Unofficial Atari 8-bit New User, Emulator Help FAQ" is maintained by
 mailto:kendrick@zippy.sonoma.edu (Bill Kendrick).  Bill and his FAQ are
 excellent sources for information on basic usage of the 8-bit Atari, and for
 information on the 8-bit Atari emulators which run on other computing
 platforms.
 
 If you would like a text-only version you can send e-mail to:
 
   mailto:kendrick@zippy.sonoma.edu
 
 with the following as the subject:
 
   send emulator faq
 
 Note that the "better" version (which the text version is based on) is:
 
   http://zippy.sonoma.edu/kendrick/nbs/new_and_emu.html
 
 ------------------------------
 
 Subject: 14.6) What hardware upgrades, modifications and add-ons are available?
 
 The Atari 8-bit Hardware Upgrade, Modification and Add-On FAQ is maintained by
 David A. Paterson, mailto:davepat@total.net or see:
 
 http://www.geocities.com/SunsetStrip/Alley/1878/hard_faq.htm
 
 ------------------------------
 
 Subject: 14.7) What is the HARD-Interlacing-Picture (HIP) format?
 
 HIP is a new method to displaing pictures on small atari...
  
 HIP stands for HARD-Interlacing-Picture and was found by
 Members of HARD Software, Hungary in June, July 1996...
  
 It enables to display 160 x 240 Pixels with 30 shades without
 nearly all flickering (depends on the source-picture you use)...
 HARD stands not for HARD or HEAVY Interlacing, just for the
 inventors...
 
 For more information, see the HIP-FAQ, located at:
 http://www.uni-karlsruhe.de/~Marek.Tomczyk/Atari8/hipfaq.html
 
 or contact HeAvEn at mailto:nadkar@fh-pforzheim.de
 
 ------------------------------
 
 Subject: 14.8) How do I access Usenet, FTP, Gopher, and WWW by e-mail?
 
 The Accessing the Internet by E-Mail FAQ is maintained by "Doctor Bob" Rankin,
 mailto:BobRankin@MHV.net or see:
 
 http://www.faqs.org/faqs/internet-services/access-via-email/
 
 ===================================================================
 End of atari-8-bit/faq
 ===================================================================
 
 
 


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