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                 The Atari 8-bit New User, Emulator Help FAQ
                                       
                        Revision 2.1, August 29, 1997
                               By Bill Kendrick
                                       
      _________________________________________________________________
                                       
    For general help (hardware, magazines, etc.) please check the Official
    Atari 8-bit FAQ file:
    
      * [1]Atari 8-bit FAQ
        (http://www.cis.ohio-state.edu/hypertext/faq/usenet/atari-8-bit/fa
        q/faq.html)
      * You can also ask the FAQ keeper, Michael Current, for a copy at:
        [2]mcurrent@carleton.edu
      * The two parts of the FAQ are also posted on the 1st and 15th of
        each month to the [3]comp.sys.atari.8bit newsgroup.
        
    If you want the latest copy of this FAQ:
    
      * [4]Atari 8-bit New User and Emulator Help FAQ
        (http://zippy.sonoma.edu/kendrick/nbs/new_and_emu.html)
      * [5]Ver. 1.5 En Espanol
        (http://zippy.sonoma.edu/kendrick/nbs/new_and_emu.espanol.txt)
      * You can also instantly receive a text copy of this file by sending
        e-mail to the author at: [6]kendrick@zippy.sonoma.edu and placing
        the sentence "send emulator faq" in the "subject" of the message.
      * This file is also occassionally posted in text format on the
        [7]comp.sys.atari.8bit and [8]comp.emulators.misc newsgroups.
        
      _________________________________________________________________
                                       
 Recent Changes:
 
      * _Since v.2.0 (August 1, 1997):_ Changed all "gopher" links to
        UMICH into "http" (web) links.
      * _Since v.1.6 (February 22, 1997):_ Cleaned up a lot. Info. on
        "large text" modes added (oops!). Info. on "Covox" audio hardware
        upgrade added. Mentioned ".PRO" along with the other disk image
        formats. Made the "DOS QuickReference" less MSDOS-centric by
        adding Unix examples of the AtariDOS commands. Explained COLOR and
        SETCOLOR more thoroughly. FAQ now points to the "Atari BASIC
        Instructions" document. APE usage described in "Getting Atari
        Files to an IBM."
      * _Since v.1.5 (July 7, 1996):_ Cleaned up formatting of some URLs.
        Added info about Rainbow 95.
      * _Since v.1.4 (May 13, 1996):_ Corrected bad Web URLs and updated
        links to Atari Archive
      * _Since v.1.3 (April 16, 1996):_ Corrected Micro Discount's phone
        numbers, added information about "ACE".
        
 Summary of Atari 8-bit's and emulated 8-bit Atari's:
 
      * Real Ataris: Atari 8-bit computers were produced between 1979 and
        1987. The major models released were the:
           + _400_ - 8K-16K, 400/800 OS, CTIA or GTIA graphics (depends
             when made)
           + _800_ - 8K-16K-48K, 400/800 OS, CTIA or GTIA graphics
             (depends when made)
           + _1200XL_ - 64K, 1200XL OS, GTIA graphics
           + _600XL_ - 16K, XL OS, GTIA graphics
           + _800XL_ - 64K, XL OS, GTIA graphics
           + _800XE_ - 64K, XL OS, GTIA graphics (European release)
           + _65XE_ - 64K, XL OS, GTIA graphics
           + _130XE_ - 128K, XL OS, GTIA graphics
           + _XEGS (Game System)_ - 64K, XEGS OS ("Missile Command" game
             built-in), GTIA graphics
        All of the XL's except the 1200XL had BASIC installed on ROM.
        BASIC can be purchased on cartridge for the 400, 800 and 1200XL.
      * Emulated Ataris:
           + On IBM PCs/compatibles:
                o _PC Xformer 2.x._ Limited Freeware demo (no source
                  code).
                o _PC Xformer 3.0x._ Powerful Commercial version (no
                  source code).
                o _XL-It!_ Powerful Public Domain version (no source code
                  yet).
                o _ACE_ Unfinished, Public Domain "vace" for SVGA
                  (including source code).
                o _Rainbow 95._ Limited Freeware demo (no source code).
                o _Rainbow 95._ Powerful Registered Shareware version (no
                  source code).
           + On Apple Macintoshes:
                o _Rainbow._ Limited Public Domain demo (no source code).
                o _Rainbow._ Powerful Registered Shareware version (no
                  source code).
           + On Atari STs, TTs, and Falcons:
                o _ST Xformer 2.x._ Limited Public Domain (previously
                  commercial) (including source code (I think)).
           + On UNIX and X Window: (including PC and Amiga)
                o _Atari 800_ Powerful Public Domain version.
                o _XL-It!_ Powerful Public Domain version.
                o _ACE_ Unfinished, Public Domain "xace" for X-Window
                  (including source code).
        
      _________________________________________________________________
                                       
 Capabilities of an Atari 8-bit:
 
   Graphics:
   
      * _Playfield Graphics (Bitmaps):_
        The Atari has maximum resolution of 320 x 192 x 2 colors.
        (standard, non-overscanned screen).
        160 x 192 x 4, 160 x 192 x 2, 160 x 96 x 4, 160 x 96 x 2,
        80 x 48 x 4, 80 x 48 x 2, and 40 x 24 x 4 graphics are also
        supported.
        GTIA (newer 800's and all XLs/XEs) graphics support 80 x 192 x 16
        shade-only, 80 x 192 x 16 hue-only, and 80 x 192 x 9 color screen
        modes.
        Special software-based modes (using page-flipping and interlacing)
        can achieve 80 x96 x256 colors, 80 x192 x256 colors, 80 x192 x4096
        colors, and 160 x192 x30 greys.
      * _Text:_
        In all text modes, character set indirection (fonts) is available.
        The XL/XE's also come with a second ROM-based font which contains
        "international characters" in place of the graphical shapes.
        40 x 24 x 256-character (128 normal, 128 inverse) text mode is
        standard (2 colors).
        20 x 24 x 64-character and 20 x 12 x 64-character modes are
        built-in. (The remaining 192 characters are identical to the first
        64, but in 3 different colors)
        40 x 24 x 128-multi-colored-character (4 colors per character
        allowed, the other 128 characters have pixels of the 4th color
        changed into a color #5) and 40 x 12 x 128-multi-colored-character
        screen modes are available, and in the XL/XE's are available
        through the OS (on the 400/800, you must create them yourself).
      * _Underscan/Overscan:_
        Normal (bordered), narrow (underscanned), and wide (overscanned)
        screen widths are available. In modes which typically have 40
        bytes per line, narrow mode presents 32 and overscanned mode
        presents 64 bytes per line.
      * _Display Lists:_
        Screen modes can be mixed (by lines) down the screen using the
        Display List (similar to "Copper Lists" on the Commodore Amiga; a
        "program" which is executed by the ANTIC graphics chip every
        screen refresh (60 times per second on real NTSC Ataris, 50 times
        per second on real PAL Ataris).
        All other screen attributes (color, player/missile horizontal
        position, screen width, player/missile/playfield priority, etc.)
        can be ajusted at any point down the screen via a "Display List
        Interrupt," where the CPU is interrupted to execute special code
        when a line containing an "interrupt" is processed by ANTIC.
      * _Scrolling:_
        Fine scrolling (both vertical and horizontal) can be enabled on
        any line on the screen.
      * _Player/Missile Graphics (Sprites):_
        Four 8-bit wide and 128 or 256 byte high single-color "players,"
        and four 2-bit wide, 128 or 256 byte high single-color "missiles"
        are available. A mode to combine the 4 missiles into a 5th 8-bit
        wide player is also available, as is a mode to XOR colors or
        blacken out colors when players overlap (good for making three
        colors out of two players!) Players and missiles have adjustable
        priority (you can specify which players and missiles appear "on
        top of" or "below" other players, missiles or playfield graphics)
        and collision detection (where, instead of creating your own
        complicated code, the ANTIC chip can tell you when players and/or
        missiles touch each other or the playfield).
        
   Sound:
   
      * Four voices of 8-bit pitch-resolution (3.5 octaves), 4-bit
        volume-resolution, and one of 8 "distortions" can be produced. 2
        voices (voices 1 and 2, and/or voices 3 and 4) can be combined to
        make 16-bit pitch-resolution. Also, 4-bit volume-only modes can be
        enabled for digitally sampled soundreplay.
      * A fifth "voice" is produced by the internal speaker on Atari
        400/800's (for keyclick and buzzer) and in the XL's and XE's this
        was rerouted through the normal audio output. (The OS's keyclick
        can be disabled, and you can of course create your own sound.)
      * Some hardware stereo upgrades (like "Gumby") exist which double
        the number of voices and add a right-channel to provide true
        stereo. (Not much software supports this.)
      * Some hardware upgrades (like "Covox") exist which double the
        resolution of the "volume-only" audio capabilities of the Atari to
        8-bits. (Not much software supports this, either.)
        
      _________________________________________________________________
                                       
 Objective of this file:
 
    At the time of its release (mid 1994), much discussion went on in the
    [9]comp.sys.atari.8bit Usenet newsgroup about the Atari 8bit emulator
    for IBM / MSDOS based computers, PC Xformer 2.0 (XF2 for short). Many
    people in the 8-bit community had gotten fed up with the XF2-based
    questions which did not pertain to them, or to the very simple
    questions which came up time and again which bothered regular
    readers / digest subscribers.
    
    This file was created to reduce the number of 'newbie' and XF2
    questions. Now it's becoming a fairly good reference, and of course
    includes information on all of the other emulators that have come
    since then.
    
    This FAQ will present answers to simple questions like "how do I turn
    off BASIC" (a good answer to that of course is, READ THE FRIGGIN'
    MANUAL) and "how do I get a disk directory?"
    
    It will also direct people who are unaware of the large amount of
    Atari 8-bit support (NOT NECESSARILY EMULATOR SUPPORT) and perhaps
    become a supplement to the many official and unofficial files floating
    around the net (like the official FAQ, the Vendor/Developer List, the
    Who's Who list, etc.).
    
      _________________________________________________________________
                                       
                          -- Questions and Answers: --
                                        
    This section contains some typical new-user and emulator-user
    questions. The answers are directed to both regular Atari users and
    emulator users.
    
     1. _What does "READY" mean?_
        This is the Atari BASIC prompt. See below for hints on Atari
        BASIC.
     2. _Why doesn't this program load?_
        The program may not work under the Atari 800 Operating System, it
        may require the XL/XE Operating System. Be sure you're in 800XL or
        130XE mode. (Note: Not all (versions) of emulators support XL/XE
        modes!)
        It may not work under the XL/XE Operating System (rare cases),
        switch to 800 mode.
        Be sure you turned BASIC off before trying to load it if it cannot
        run with BASIC on.
        It might be a BASIC program! Be sure you're in BASIC and use the
        BASIC "RUN" or "LOAD" (and then "RUN") command. Also, be sure it
        works with the BASIC you have. Some programs only run in BASIC XL
        or XE (which are both cartridge-based BASIC's not easily available
        to an emulator), and some run with TurboBASIC XL (disk-based).
        (Note: BASIC files usually end in the extension ".BAS," ".BXL," or
        ".TBS," for Atari BASIC, BASIC XL, and TurboBASIC XL,
        respectively.)
        It may just refuse to run on the emulator.
     3. _How do I turn off BASIC?_
        To toggle BASIC on and off in PC Xformer, press [SHIFT]-[F10].
        To toggle BASIC on and off in Rainbow, ???.
        To toggle BASIC on and off in Atari800, ???.
        To toggle BASIC on and off in XL-It!, ???.
        To toggle BASIC on and off in ST Xformer, ???.
        To toggle BASIC on and off in ACE, ???.
        To turn BASIC off on a real Atari, hold the [OPTION] key as you're
        booting. (This should work on emulators, too, but is usually
        difficult to accomplish!)
     4. _Why doesn't this game/program run correctly?_
        It may use player/missle collision detection which is not
        supported on some versions of emulators.
        See "Why doesn't this program load?", above.
     5. _How do I exit the emulator?_
        To exit PC Xformer, press [F5]. Note: this does NOT temporarily
        'shell' or 'jump' to MSDOS.
        To exit Rainbow, press [Apple]-[Q] or select "Exit" from the
        "Apple Menu".
        To exit Atari 800, ??? or close the window (in X Window).
        To exit XL-It!, ??? or close the window (in X Window).
        To exit ST Xformer, ???.
        To exit ACE, ??? or close the window (in X Window).
     6. _How do I get to Atari DOS?_
        In BASIC, type "DOS" at the "READY" prompt.
        Reboot without BASIC on.
        Be sure you have a DOS-bootable disk image installed in drive 1
        ("D1:").
     7. _How do I use files which are not in disk images with an emulator?_
        To "install" files as though there were plain disks with PC
        Xformer, simply add the files to the command line and use them as
        their respective drives (be sure the first drive is a DOS-bootable
        disk image).
        Example: XFORMER MYDOS45.ATR filename.ext To use a file from your
        Mac in Rainbow, make sure the disk image in drive 1 has enough
        space for the file, and select ???. The file will be added to that
        disk image.
        To use Unix files in Atari800, use the H drive. ???.
        To use Unix files in XL-It!, ???.
        To use MSDOS or Unix files in ACE, ???.
        Use the MSDOS program S2PC which allows you to access files within
        a MyDOS/compatible .ATR disk image. S2PC let's you read, write,
        delete, change directory, and view the directory of a
        MyDOS/compatible .ATR disk image. It can be used via command-line
        parameters from MSDOS, or as a menu.
        Use the MSDOS program ATARIMG, which is much like S2PC but has a
        nicer, more graphical (less-menu driven) interface.
        (Unfortunately, this doesn't run on all IBM's!)
        Use the Mac program Virtual Disk Editor ???.
     8. _Just what ARE .ATR, .PRO and .XFD files?_
        Refer to the XFormer, SIO2PC and APE manuals for details on these
        files.
        Simply put, they are Atari disks, stored as files which are as big
        as the disk they represent (an 88k disk image will be
        approximately 88k.) .ATR files are used by SIO2PC and APE (see
        below) as well as most Atari emulators. .XFD files are used by ST
        Xformer and PC Xformer. .PRO files are like .ATR files, but they
        include some copy-protection scheme information; these files are
        used by APE.
     9.
        What are SIO2PC and APE?
        
    
    Refer to the SIO2PC manuals for details on this program.
    
    Refer to the APE manual and SIO2PC hardware manual for details on this
    program.
    
    These are a programs which run on IBM/compatibles under MSDOS. (APE
    also runs fine under "dosemu" for IBM/compatibles running Linux). With
    the use of of a simple (and relatively inexpensive) cable, the
    software makes the IBM act as though it were a number of Atari
    peripherals. SIO2PC emulates up to four disk drives (any drive ID
    numbers from 1 to 8 are allowed) and a printer. APE emulators up to
    eight disk drives, a printer, and a modem (RS232). They use disk image
    files (.ATR's) and can also let the Atari access plain IBM files.
    SIO2PC does this much like PC XFormer does, making the single file its
    own disk. APE allows you to navigate your PC's drives through an Atari
    drive. The printer emulation of these programs redirect Atari "P:"
    writes to the PC's printer. SIO2PC can also direct the output to the
    screen or to a plain IBM file. Different text translations/conversions
    are available. (APE also allows keyboard macros, command key
    redefinition, the ability to save the current drive/etc. configuration
    and load it later as a "block", and the ability to both emulate copy
    protected disks (with it's own extension of the ".ATR" format, the
    ".PRO" format (which will hopefully be used in future versions of
    Atari emulators)) and create disk images from copy-restricted original disks
    (with a special cable). SIO2PC may soon have this ability as well,
    since the documentations say it has been planned for a while.)
    
      _What is XFSIO?_
    Refer to the XFSIO manual for details on how to use this program.
    
    XFSIO is a shell for PC XFormer, XLiT!, APE and SIO2PC which allows
    you to set the command switches for the previously mentioned programs.
    It also allows you to comment each 'virtual disk' with up to 132
    characters, and can search the database to find which disk a
    particular title is on.
    
      _________________________________________________________________
                                       
 -- Getting around on the Atari: DOS and OS --
 
    Note: This section will simply discuss Atari BASIC, the Atari OS, and
    Atari DOS 2.5 and MyDOS 4.5x (because these topics seem the most
    relevant to the less-knowledged/experienced Atari 8-bit users). No
    emulator-specific information will be presented.
    
      * _AtariDOS and MyDOS QuickReference:_
        MyDOS (4.50 and 4.53) presents the user with the following
        commands:
           + _[*] Disk directory_ of current directory (like "dir *.*" in
             MSDOS and "ls *" in Unix)
           + _[1]-[9] Disk directory_ of a disk drive (like "dir a:\*.*"
             to "dir i:\*.*" in MSDOS)
           + _[A] Disk directory_ (like "dir " and optional output
             destination in MSDOS) You'll be prompted for a directory
             listing mask (like "D1:*.*" or "D3:GAMES:*.EXE")
           + _[B] Quit to cartridge_
           + _[C] Copy_ file(s) ("[source],[destination]" copies from one
             place or disk to another, just "[source]" copies from one
             place on one disk in a drive to the same place on another
             disk in the same drive (asks for swapping))
           + _[D] Delete_ file(s) (add "/N" to delete without being
             prompted first) (add ">*.*" or ":*.*" after a subdirectory
             name to delete the files within it. A subdirectory name alone
             will delete the subdirectory (if it is empty and unlocked)).
             (Acts like both "del" and "rd" in MSDOS and "rm" and "rmdir"
             in Unix.)
           + _[E] Rename_ file(s) (renaming multiple files is allowed, but
             be careful) (Like "ren [old] [new]" in MSDOS and
             "mv [old] [new]" in Unix. With MyDOS and AtariDOS use ","
             between old and new masks.)
           + _[F] Locks_ file(s) from overwrite, deletion and appending
             (like "attrib +r [mask]" in MSDOS and "chmod 555 [mask]" in
             Unix.) (It makes them "read-only.")
           + _[G] Unlocks_ file(s) (returns them to their default state).
           + _[H] Writes DOS_ files to a disk (this creates a disk which
             boots with the current version of MyDOS you are using and
             also has the menu file "DUP.SYS" on it as well).
           + _[I] Formats_ a disk (add "/N" after the drive number to do a
             quick-format of an already-formatted disk (ie, just a very
             fast way to delete all the files on the disk.))
           + _[J] Duplicate disk_ (copies an entire disk, including boot
             sector, and every other sector!!! When using disk images, as
             with emulators, SIO2PC or APE, it's much quicker to just copy
             one .XFD or .ATR to another).
           + _[K] Make binary file:_ saves memory and makes it
             binary-loadable. See [L].
           + _[L] Load binary file:_ loads a compiled program. (like
             "[filename]" in MSDOS, except any ".EXE", ".COM", ".OBJ",
             etc. is still required.)
           + _[M] Run at address._ Mainly for advanced users. Reboot is
             "E477", reset is "E474" (these are the hex values of the
             addresses where the routines to reboot and reset are.)
           + _[N] MEM.SAV:_ when this is on, whenever you go to DOS (from
             BASIC, for example) it will write what is in memory to a file
             "MEM.SAV" so that when DUP.SYS (the menu) loads it isn't lost
             forever. When you exit DUP.SYS with the "B: Run Cartridge"
             command, MEM.SAV is reloaded and the environment should be as
             it was when you left. It's probably quicker to simply "SAVE"
             your programs (if in a language) which aren't nearly as big
             as all of the memory that MEM.SAV saves.
           + _[O] Options:_ this presents the user with some options.
             Mainly for advanced users or special setups. See the MyDOS
             docs for details.
           + _[P] Set density._ Forces a drive to be recognized at a
             certain density if MyDOS can't figure it out. (??)
           + _[Q] Make a subdirectory._ (like "md" or "mkdir" in MSDOS).
           + _[R] Set default directory._ (like "cd" in MSDOS and "cwd" in
             SpartaDOS) This makes "D:" now the same as a subdirectory or
             other drive. ie, "D2:" will make all calls to "D:" act as
             though they are to "D2:" instead. Some programs when
             prompting for filenames do not add "D:" to the beginning if
             one is not present, they add "D1:". If you don't trust a
             program to look to "D:" instead of "D1:" and you want it to
             look to some place OTHER than "D1:" (ie, where "D:" is
             pointing which could be a VERY long path list), just add "D:"
             to the beginning. ALSO, some programs don't even ADD "D:"'s
             if they aren't in the filenames you give and may give errors
             (138, for example: device not present, ie, if you said
             "TESTFILE.DAT" it may think you want "T:" instead of
             "D:TESTFILE.DAT").
           + _[S] Set ramdisk number._ This is also under [O]ptions.
           + _[V] Verify writes._ This is also under [O]ptions. When
             Verify is on, writes will be slower but 100% reliable. With
             it off, writes will be much faster but possibly not as
             reliable (on bad disks, for example). Default is off.
        AtariDOS presents the user with the following commands which are
        identical to MyDOS's commands: A,B,C(no swaping),D,E,F,G,H, I(some
        densities),J,K,L,M,N
        AtariDOS 2.5 presents the user with the following commands not
        present or not the same as MyDOS's commands:
           + _[O] Duplicate file._ This is used to copy a file from one
             disk to another using only one drive. (In MyDOS, giving just
             a source will make [C]opy act like DOS 2's Duplicate.)
           + _[P] Format Single._ In DOS 2.5, this is used to format 88k
             (Single Density) disks. To format an Enhanced Density (127k)
             disk, just use [I]. In DOS 2.0, [I] is the only format option
             and only handles 88k. (I may be wrong, but I have never had a
             Double Density drive under Atari DOS 2.0 or 2.5!)
      * _General DOS and OS questions:_
          1. _How do I access the disk drives?_
             First, you need to have booted with a DOS. All but one DOS is
             on disk (SpartaDOS X is on cartridge). When the Atari boots
             up, it does some of its 'boot-up stuff' which includes
             looking for a disk drive connected and turned on which is set
             up as drive #1. It then begins to load from the disk's "boot
             sector". If none exists or there's a nasty error on the disk,
             you get the "BOOT ERROR" notice until the error is fixed. (On
             SpartaDOS disks, even non-bootable disks have a boot sector,
             but all the boot sector is is a small program which displays
             a 'not a boot disk' error).
             To end the digression, the answer to _'how do I access the
             disk drives_' starts with '_you must boot the Atari with a
             DOS_'. Check the 8-bit FAQ and the UMICH and other FTP
             archives for lists of DOSes available for Ataris, but the
             most used are Atari DOS (for compatibility with almost ALL
             older software), MyDOS (for an Atari DOS compatible high-end
             DOS), and SpartaDOS (for a very high-end DOS which looks much
             like MS-DOS but unfortunately cannont run all software which
             runs fine with Atari DOS and MyDOS.) Note: SpartaDOS does NOT
             run on Atari 400's and 800's (except the cartridge versions
             and I believe disk version 1.1). Now that you have a DOS
             loaded, the Atari understands the "D:" device (see below for
             Atari devices). Since there is more than one disk drive, you
             have to be able to tell them apart. The Atari uses numbers
             when it has more than one of the same device, so "D1:" is
             drive 1, "D2:" is drive 2, "D3:" is drive 3, etc.!
             After the "D:" device name comes the filename. Of the most
             used DOSes, only MyDOS supports lowercase letters in
             filenames, but since most programs force uppercase entry for
             filenames, nobody really seems to use lowercase in their
             filenames.
          2. _How do I copy things from one place to another?_
             Atari DOS and MyDOS give you the "C" command in their menu
             interface. When it asks for a source and destination, you can
             use wildcards (* and ? like in most other DOSes) to copy more
             than one file at a time. You can also present no destination
             so that a file can be copied from one disk in drive 1 to
             another disk in drive 1, for example, and the DOS will ask
             you to insert each disk.
          3. _What are subdirectories?_
             Subdirectories are places where files go which are just like
             the normal directory of a disk, except the they happen to be
             WITHIN that normal directory, or even another subdirectory.
             For example, you can have your disk divided up into the
             "GAMES" files, the "GRAPHICS" files and the "SOUNDS" files. A
             directory of the disk (the "root" or "base" or "trunk"
             directory) will simply list the three subdirectories,
             "GAMES", "GRAPHICS" and "SOUNDS". Then, if you ask for a
             directory listing of the "GAMES" subdirectory, you will see
             the files (and perhaps other subdirectories) within the
             "GAMES" directory. Think of it as a tree. For people familiar
             with Macintoshes, "Folders" are simply subdirectories. A
             window which appears when you open a "Disk" Icon is the
             "root", and all of the "Folders" within it have more windows
             in them which also have file and folder icons.
             Here's a comparison to using subdirectories on different
             DOSes for the Atari and with MSDOS and Unix
 
                 root  'GAMES'   'SPACE' within 'GAMES'
    AtariDOS      D:     n/a              n/a
    MyDOS         D:   D:GAMES:     D:GAMES:SPACE:
    SpartaDOS     D:   D:GAMES>     D:GAMES>SPACE>
    MSDOS (IBM)   \    \GAMES\       \GAMES\SPACE\
    UNIX          /    /games/       /games/space/
         Note, only Atari DOS would be using drive 1 here, all other DOSes
             are not necessarily using drive 1, and MyDOS and SpartaDOS
             may already 'be within' a subdirectory.
             In MyDOS and SpartaDOS (and MSDOS), you can change the
             'current' or 'default' directory to a different place (a
             different drive or a subdirectory). "D:" can stand for "D1:"
             (like AtariDOS always does) or "D2:GAMES:SPACE:"! PLEASE READ
             THE MYDOS OR SPARTADOS DOCUMENTS FOR DETAILS ON THIS!
          4. _What does "P:", "E:", "K:", etc. mean?_
             As stated before, the Atari has devices. "D:" is added when a
             bootable disk in drive 1 is read. Other exist as well:
                o C: Cassette
                  Readable and writeable, no filenames.
                o D: Disk Drive
                  Readable, writeable, random access, directory, files,
                  multiple devices (up to 9 on MyDOS and newer SpartaDOS,
                  8 on AtariDOS).
                o E: Editor
                  Readable, writeable. This is how input from the keyboard
                  and output to the screen is normally handled. If you
                  wish to type a small file up by hand and have it sent to
                  the printer or a file, use "E:" as the source.
                o G: Graphics Printer
                  Writeable. This is not built into the Operating System
                  but must be loaded. This is an Epson-compatible printer
                  driver which can easily dump graphics.
                o K: Keyboard
                  Readable. This is just the keyboard. Input from it is
                  not `echoed' back like with the "E:ditor".
                o M: "Multi-Mouse"
                  Readable, writeable? This is not built into the
                  Operating System but must be loaded. This is a handler
                  which runs in the background and accepts input from
                  either a mouse, a joystick or a touch-tablet and
                  displays a mouse pointer on the screen.
                o M: "Multiplexer"
                  Readable, writeable. For Atari's connected to each other
                  via a "Multiplexer" local area network, the "MUX"
                  Operating System replacement provides an "M:" device for
                  computer-to-computer communication.
                o P: Printer
                  Writeable. Send data to this and it will appear on the
                  printer. You can print files (documents, etc.) by using
                  "P:" as the destination. The Atari XL/XE OSes support
                  "P1:" and "P2:", although I believe this usage is rare.
                o R: RS232 (COM port)
                  Readable, writeable, concurrent mode. This is not built
                  in to the Operating System, but is loaded. It supports
                  modems. The Atari 850 Interface has it's "R: handler"
                  'built-in', which means the Atari also looks for an 850
                  (or other compatible interface) and receives the "R:
                  handler" code from it. Other interfaces and the Atari
                  'direct-connect' modems require a file to be loaded
                  which contains the "R:" code. "R1:" and "R2:" is also
                  supported, but also its usage seems rare.
                o W: Windowing (screens)
                  Readable, writeable. This is a graphics 8 graphical
                  windowing driver (rarely used, unfortunately!). It must
                  of course be loaded as well.
                o Z: RTime8 Real-time Clock
                  Readable, writeable. This is also not built in to the
                  OS, but loaded. This is loaded from disk and lets the
                  user access the "RTime8" real time, battery-backed up
                  clock for the Atari 8-bit. (This is a cartridge-based
                  device). I am unaware of any "Z:" clone which let's you
                  set the Atari internal (non-real time,
                  non-battery-backed-up) clock if you do not have an
                  RTime8, although I'd love to see one! [hint!!]
          5. _How do I print something from DOS?_
             As stated above, just use the "C"opy command, then use the
             file you wish to print as the 'source', and "P:" as the
             'destination'. Example: "D1:DOCUMENT.TXT,P:" Except for ASCII
             text files, you'll usually want to print from within a
             program capable of opening the file, otherwise you'll print
             garbage. A good rule of thumb is if you can see it when you
             do a "C"opy to the "E:"ditor, then you can print it by
             "C"opying it to the "P:"rinter.
        
      _________________________________________________________________
                                       
 -- Getting around on the Atari: BASIC --
 
     1. _What does "READY" mean?_
        Again, this is simply the prompt that Atari BASIC (and most older
        BASIC's) presents the user when it is in "Immediate" mode.
           + Entering a command will cause it to act immediately.
           + Entering a line number and then a command will place that
             line into the current program (adding the line if that line
             number didn't exist before, or overwriting it if it did).
           + Entering a line number alone will remove that line from the
             current program.
           + To start a program, use the "RUN" command.
           + To erase a program, use the "NEW" command.
           + To clear variable values to 0 and kill string and array
             declarations (thus freeing the memory they take up), use the
             "CLR" command.
           + To load a program, use the "LOAD" command followed by a
             filename (see below). To load and run a program, use the
             "RUN" command followed by a filename.
           + To save a program, use the "SAVE" command followed by a
             filename.
           + To list a program, use the "LIST" command followed by an
             optional destination device ("D:file.lst", "P:"rinter) and an
             option start and end set of lines seperated by (a) comma(s).
             Examples: "LIST 10" to see line 10.
             "LIST 10,20" to see lines 10 through 20.
             "LIST 10," to see lines 10 to the end (TurboBASIC XL and
             BASIC XL(?) only!)
             "LIST "P:"" prints the listing to the printer. (Beware the
             graphics characters will probably mess up the printout on
             most printers!)
             "LIST "D:A.LST",10,20" saves the listing of lines 10 through
             20 to the file "A.LST"
     2. _Where can I learn Atari BASIC?_
        See the "[10]Atari BASIC Instructions" document for info!
        (http://student.uci.agh.edu.pl/~tatar/Atari/Langs/abasic.html)
     3. _How do I quit BASIC?_
           + Type "DOS" to quit BASIC and return to DOS.
           + Type "BYE" to quit BASIC and exit to the OS's "bye" routines
             (Atari Memo Pad on 400/800's, Atari logo on 1200XL's, and
             Self Test on other XL's and XE's). (Note: On 1200XL's, use
             [HELP] to go to the Self Test when the Atari logo appears).
           + Reboot with [OPTION] held down to disable BASIC. (For
             emulator users, remember there are ways to totally disable
             BASIC.)
     4. _Why don't strings work?_
        Strings must be "dimensioned" (declared) like arrays in Atari
        BASIC. Strings are special character arrays. See the BASIC
        usage/etc. files mentioned in the answer to question 2. Simply
        put, to make a string that will accept up to "#" character, use
        DIM [name]$(#). Example: DIM A$(10) - now A$ can contain between 0
        and 10 characters.
     5. _How do I make graphics?_
        Use the "GRAPHICS" command to switch between the following
        OS-based screen modes:
        (Note: All modes except 0, 9, 10 and 11 have four lines of
        40 x 24 x 2 sized text covering the bottom of the screen. Add "16"
        to the mode number to remove this window (but do not make any
        PRINTs or PUTs to the standard output otherwise a GRAPHICS 0
        screen will appear!))
        (Note: Add "32" to the mode number to keep the screen from
        clearing when it appears. One problem, however, all screens
        overlay each other so unless you only use certain modes at certain
        times, parts of some screens will become (or start out) with
        'garbage' on them.)
           + GRAPHICS 0: 40 x 24 x 2 text
           + GRAPHICS 1: 20 x 24 x 5 text
           + GRAPHICS 2: 20 x 12 x 5 text
           + GRAPHICS 3: 40 x 24 x 4 graphics
           + GRAPHICS 4: 80 x 48 x 2 graphics
           + GRAPHICS 5: 80 x 48 x 4 graphics
           + GRAPHICS 6: 160 x 96 x 2 graphics
           + GRAPHICS 7: 160 x 96 x 4 graphics
           + GRAPHICS 8: 320 x 192 x 2 graphics
           + GRAPHICS 9: 80 x 192 x 16 luminence-only graphics
           + GRAPHICS 10: 80 x 192 x 9 graphics
           + GRAPHICS 11: 80 x 192 x 16 hue-only graphics
           + GRAPHICS 12: 40 x 24 x 4-colored text
           + GRAPHICS 13: 40 x 12 x 4-colored text
           + GRAPHICS 14: 160 x 192 x 2 graphics
           + GRAPHICS 15: 160 x 192 x 4 graphics
        
   Commands:
        Commands available in Atari BASIC for manipulating simple graphics
        include:
           + PLOT x,y - plot a pixel
           + POSITION x,y - position cursor
           + COLOR c - set drawing color (c=color or character value)
           + DRAWTO x,y - draw a line from cursor location (set with
             "POSITION", "PLOT", "DRAWTO" or "LOCATE")
           + LOCATE x,y,r (where "r" is a varibale where result will be
             stored)
           + SETCOLOR c,h,l (c=palette location (0 to 4), h=hue (0 to 15,
             explained below, l=lum, 0 (darkest) to 15 (brightest))
        
   Setcolor Hue Values:
        This is a simple table of Atari's 16 hues. For now, I've just
        pointed out major color points. In-between values are in-between
        colors. (Since 1 is yellow, and 4 is red, 2 and 3 are oranges.)
           + 0 - black/grey/white
           + 1 - yellow
           + 2
           + 3
           + 4 - red/pink
           + 5
           + 6
           + 7
           + 8 - blue
           + 9
           + 10
           + 11
           + 12 - green
           + 13
           + 14
           + 15 - yellow
        
   Colors:
        Note: COLOR command colors are not identical to SETCOLOR command
        colors:
        In 4-color drawing modes, all four of these colors map to the
        SETCOLOR palette locations:
           + COLOR 0 will draw using the background color, set with
             SETCOLOR 4,hue,lum
           + COLOR 1 will draw using color "0", set with SETCOLOR
             0,hue,lum
           + COLOR 2 will draw using color "1", set with SETCOLOR
             1,hue,lum
           + COLOR 3 will draw using color "2", set with SETCOLOR
             2,hue,lum
        In low-resolution 2-color drawing modes, these two colors map to
        the SETCOLOR palette locations:
           + COLOR 0 will draw using the background color, set with
             SETCOLOR 4,hue,lum
           + COLOR 1 will draw using color "0", set with SETCOLOR
             0,hue,lum
        In the high-resolution 2-color drawing mode (GRAPHICS 8), and in
        the 2-color text mode, (GRAPHICS 0 and the text windows), these
        three colors map to the SETCOLOR palette locations:
           + COLOR 0 will draw using the background color, set with
             SETCOLOR 2,hue,lum
           + COLOR 2 will draw using a color which is the luminence of
             color "1" and the hue of the background (color "2"): SETCOLOR
             1,_anything_,lum
           + SETCOLOR 4,hue,lue will change the color of the screen
             border.
        In the GTIA luminence-only graphics mode (GRAPHICS 9), the color
        specified with "COLOR" is the brightness of the pixels you plot (0
        is black/darkest, 15 is white/brightest).
           + COLOR 0 is the background color and pixel hue, set with
             SETCOLOR 4,hue,0. Setting the luminence of the background to
             anything but 0 causes strange things to happen.
        In the GTIA paletted graphics mode (GRAPHICS 10), the following
        colors are used:
           + COLOR 0 is the background color, which is actually
             Player/Missile 0's color, set with POKE 704,hue*16+lum
           + COLOR 1 is PM 1's color, POKE 705,hue*16+lum
           + COLOR 2 is PM 2's color, POKE 706,hue*16+lum
           + COLOR 3 is PM 3's color, POKE 707,hue*16+lum
           + COLOR 4 is color "0", SETCOLOR 0,hue,lum
           + COLOR 5 is color "1", SETCOLOR 1,hue,lum
           + COLOR 6 is color "2", SETCOLOR 2,hue,lum
           + COLOR 7 is color "3", SETCOLOR 3,hue,lum
        In the GTIA hue-only mode (GRAPHICS 11), the color you specify is
        the hue of the pixel (see the "SETCOLOR" color table, above). The
        luminence of the pixels is based on the value for the background
        luminence:
           + SETCOLOR 4,0,lum Sets the luminence of all colors except
             black, which remains darkest (black).
     6. _How do I make sound on the Atari_
        The easiest way is to use the BASIC "SOUND" command:
        SOUND c,p,d,v
           + c=channel (0-3)
           + p=pitch (0-255) (0 is highest pitch, sometimes off; 255 is
             the lowest pitch)
           + d=distortion (0,2,4,6,8,10,12 or 14) (10 is a "pure" tone)
           + v=volume (0-15)
        The buzzer character is CHR$(253) aka [CONTROL]+[2] (NOT
        [CONTROL]+[G])
     7. _How do I move the cursor and edit?_
        The Atari "E:" device (standard input/output which is the
        "editor") allows the following characters for editing:
        (Note: "Sh" means "[SHIFT]" and "^" means "[CONTROL]")
 
      Key:             AtASCII #:      Use:
      ----------------- -------- ---------------------------------------------
      Atari              none    Turn inverse on/off (Atari 400/800 kybds)
      Inverse [Triangle] none    Turn inverse on/off (Atari XL/XE kybds)
      CAPS               none    Turns caps-mode to lowercase (400/800 OS)
      CAPS               none    Toggles caps-mode from upper to lower (XL/XE)
      Sh-CAPS            none    Turns caps-mode to uppercase (all OSes)
      Ct-CAPS            none    Turns caps-mode to [Control]-[Lock] (all)
      Up ([^-])           28     Move cursor up
      Down ([^=])         29     Move cursor down
      Left ([^+])         30     Move cursor left
      Right ([^*])        31     Move cursor right
      Space               32     Move cursor right (overwrites w/Space char)
      BackSpace           126    Move cursor left (deletes previous char)
      Delete ([ShBkspc])  156    Deletes a (logical) line (1-3 physical lines)
      Insert ([Sh>])      157    Inserts a physical line
      Ct-Delete ([^Bksp]) 254    Deletes char under cursor, pulls rest left
      Ct-Insert ([^>])    255    Inserts space under cursor, pushes rest right
      ClearScn ([^<])     125    Clears screen
      Bell ([^2])         253    Sounds buzzer
      TAB                 127    Moves cursor to next TABstop
      ClrTAB ([^TAB])     158    Clears any TABstop under cursor
      SetTAB ([ShTAB])    159    Sets a TABstop under cursor
      ESC                  27    Sets ESCape (next edit char after is shown,
                                 not done, non-edit chars shown (like normal))
      RETURN              155    Sends End Of Line (moves cursor to lowerleft
                                 of next line, accepts input)
 
        Note: Inverse characters have values of the normal version of the
        characters plus 128. (The only non-viewable inverse character is
        inverse-ESC, or what would be the [ESC],[RETURN] combination. The
        character exists, but must be set into screen RAM by hand.)
     8. _How do I make the editor characters appear_
        As shown above, you must have an ESC sent before them.
           + When simply entering text, type [ESC] then the edit key and
             the character for that edit key should appear.
           + When entering text in a PRINT statement (in BASIC, et. al.),
             you must have it send an ESC beforehand, so first type
             [ESC],[ESC] to make an ESCape character appear, then type
             [ESC] then the edit key and the character for that edit key
             should appear.
             When the PRINT statement is executed, the first ESCape (which
             you typed as two [ESC]'s) will make the editor SHOW the
             following character (even if it is an edit character), then
             the character which you entered (with [ESC] and then the edit
             key) will make that character appear. This makes it difficult
             to align a set of PRINT statements which make a multi-line
             picture or menu which uses viewed edit keys.
             It is probably best to have all of the lines in your program
             with the PRINT statements that can fit visible on the screen,
             then edit them (without putting any of the ESCape characters
             in, then when the picture looks like how you want it on the
             screen, move the cursor to on top of each edit-key character
             and press [Control]+[>] (Control-Insert). A blank space
             should appear under the cursor and the rest of the line
             should move right. Now, type [ESC],[ESC] and an ESCape
             edit-key character should appear where the blank space was.
             When you are finished doing that for each line with those
             PRINTs in it, BE SURE TO ENTER THEM INTO THE PROGRAM BY
             PRESSING [RETURN] ON EACH OF THOSE LINES! Whew!
        Set the memory location "766" to "1" with the command "POKE 766,1"
        to turn on the no-edit mode (ALL characters except End Of Lines
        will appear, even ClearScreens!) When you want to go back into
        normal mode, set the location back to "0" with "POKE 766,0".
     9. _What's with the colors changing?_
        This is called "Attract mode" as was used on the Atari 8-bit
        computers and the Atari 2600, 5200 and 7800 game systems. When a
        key hasn't been pressed for about 8 minutes the screen colors
        begin changing, thus protecting your TV or monitor from having an
        image burned on it.
           + To turn this mode off, press a key, or, if within a program,
             use the command "POKE 77,0" at least once every few minutes
             (IF the screen is active, otherwise turning it off would be
             kinda useless).
           + To turn it on, wait 7 or 9 minutes without pressing a key or
             having location "77" set to "0", or set location "77" to
             "128" with "POKE 77,128", voila! instant attract mode!
    10. _How do I access 'devices' on the Atari?_
        The following commands are available to Atari BASIC's (and also
        variations on these are available in most other Atari languages!):
           + OPEN #a,b,c,d$
             Opens channel 'a' for access to 'd$' in mode 'b' with
             auxillary mode 'c'. Channel 'a' must be free or else a
             'Channel already open' (129) error will occur. To explain the
             different "modes", here are simply some examples:
                o OPEN #1,4,0,"K:"
                  Input from keyboard
                o OPEN #2,8,0,"P:"
                  Output to printer
                o OPEN #3,12,0,"D:FILE"
                  Random access to disk
                o OPEN #4,9,0,"D:DATA"
                  Append-output to disk
                o OPEN #5,13,0,"R:"
                  Concurrent to RS232 (modem)
                o OPEN #6,6,0,"D:*.TXT"
                  Directory access to disk (reads directory of "*.TXT"
                  mask; listing only files on the drive whose names end in
                  ".TXT")
           + CLOSE #a
             Closes channel 'a' (freeing it for use)
           + GET #a,b
             Reads a byte from channel 'a' and stores it in 'b'
           + PUT #a,b
             Puts byte 'b' onto channel 'a'
           + INPUT #a,b$
             Reads a string (up to 255 bytes and a REQUIRED 'end of line'
             (character 155)) from channel 'a' and stores it in 'b$'
           + INPUT #a,b
             Reads a string (up to 255 bytes and a REQUIRED 'end of line'
             (character 155)) from channel 'a' and stores the numeric
             value of it in 'b'
           + PRINT #a,[stuff]
             Just like the normal BASIC PRINT statement, but sends the
             information to channel 'a' (semicolons, comas, and mixed
             types are of course allowed).
           + STATUS #a,b
             Reads the error 'status' of channel 'a' and stores it in 'b'
           + XIO a,#b,c,d,e$
             General I/O call. This a little complicated and may be
             expanded upon in a future revision. Just be aware of the
             following:
                o a - command
                o b - channel to use (usually must be free)
                o c - auxillary mode 1
                o d - auxillary mode 2
                o e$ - file or device to act upon
             Examples:
                o XIO 32,#1,0,0,"D:FILE,OLDFILE" renames file
                o XIO 33,#1,0,0,"D:OLDFILE" deletes file
                o XIO 34,#1,0,0,"D:GAMES" creates a directory in My- &
                  Sparta-DOS
                o XIO 35,#1,0,0,"D:NEWFILE" locks a file from over-write
                  and deletion
                o XIO 36,#1,0,0,"D:NEWFILE" UNlocks a locked file
                o XIO 40,#1,4,0,"D:PROG.OBJ" loads and runs a binary file
                  (like "L" in Atari and MyDOS)
                o XIO 40,#1,5,0,"D:PROG.OBJ" loads a binary file (like "L"
                  in Atari and MyDOS with the "/N" option)
                o XIO 41,#1,0,0,"D:GAMES" changes default directory that
                  drive/subdirectory (all calls to "D:" will now occur
                  within that drive/directory)
                o XIO 254,#1,0,0,"D2:" FORMAT a disk (in Atari DOS 2.5,
                  this is format 'enhanced', to format 'single' density,
                  use XIO 253) (in MyDOS, this is format, but not
                  'enhanced', use:
                o XIO 253,#[channel],1,0,"D[drive]:" for formatting a
                  drive in enhanced mode).
             NOTE: 39 and 40 are the same. Also note the useage of AUX1 in
             the "XIO 40" example.
        
      _________________________________________________________________
                                       
 -- Getting Atari files to an IBM: --
 
     1. _How can I read Atari disks on my IBM?_
        _Note:_ Someone please give more details or corrections here!
        Thanks!
        If you have double-density Atari disks, you can use the program
        "Util" on the IBM which can read double-density Atari disks.
        Please see the Atari 8-bit FAQ for more details.
        If you have an Atari 1050 disk drive, you can use the program MULE
        to copy files, one file at a time, 20k chunks at a time, from the
        Atari to the IBM. You first must format a 180k disk on your IBM,
        then run MULE on your Atari to get a file onto the MULE disk, then
        run MULE on the IBM to get the file onto the IBM. Tedious, isn't
        it? MULE wasn't meant to be a fully-functional program, just a
        demo to show that this was even possible.
        If you're fortunate to have a Black Box interface on your Atari,
        you can get an external IBM drive and the Black Box's add-on, the
        Floppy-Board and simply copy files from your Atari disks or hard
        drive(s) onto IBM disks via the floppy board, then load them up on
        your IBM.
     2. _Ok, I can't do any of that, now what?_
           + Drive Emulators:
             You can use SIO2PC or APE, which are programs for IBM's which
             turn your IBM into a set of Atari disk drives. You need an
             "SIO2PC cable" or something similar (which you can purchase,
             assembled or unassembled, or buy parts and build it yourself)
             and the SIO2PC or APE software (available at UMICH).
             _SIO2PC users:_ Connect your IBM to your Atari, load SIO2PC,
             and then run the program FILE2PC on the Atari to transfer
             files to the IBM's hard drive. Or instead create a disk image
             within SIO2PC and copy files from one disk (a real Atari
             floppy) to another (the SIO2PC image) with the Atari or MyDOS
             "C"opy command. If you want to extract files out of the
             SIO2PC disk image file and store them on your IBM's hard
             drive or floppies as single files, either again use FILE2PC
             or use S2PC, an IBM program which can extract files from or
             add files to MyDOS-compatible SIO2PC disk images!
             _APE users:_ You can turn one of the 8 Atari drives into a
             "PC-Mirror" drive, allowing access to save and load files
             directly onto your PC's disks.
           + NULL-Modem:
             You can use two modems (one on your PC and one on your Atari)
             to download files from your Atari 8-bit.
           + FTP From Archives:
             If you don't necessarily want files that you already have on
             your Atari 8-bit, you can download files from the huge
             collection available at FTP sites and Atari 8-bit supporting
             bulletin boards and save them onto your IBM.
           + Using an online account for one-modem transfers:
             If you have only one modem, so you can't connect both your
             Atari 8-bit and your IBM together via modems, you can do it
             via null-modem, OR you can upload files from your Atari to
             some bulletin board or account you have access to, and then
             connect the modem to your IBM and download the files.
           + _Is there any easier way to get Disk Communicator (Atari disk
             image) files to and from SIO2PC disk images or PC/ST Xformer
             XFD disk images other than using Disk Communicator 3.2 on my
             Atari! I mean, both files are disk images! They're both on my
             PC's hard drive! [cry]_
             (AND NOTE: DiskComm. doesn't like SIO2PC a lot of the time
             anyway!)
             Yes! There's an IBM program out called "DCM2DSK".
             There's also C source to a very similar program called
             "DCMTOATR" which works on PC's (a PC executable version comes
             in the archive) and Unix and probably any other system with a
             good C compiler.
          _____________________________________________________________
                                         
 -- Where to get or FTP files mentioned in this FAQ: --
 
           + _PC Xformer 2.0 and 2.5_ can be downloaded from:
                o
                  [11]http://www.umich.edu/~archive/atari/8bit/Emulators/Co
                  mputer/
                o [12]Emulators Inc. Website (http://www.emulators.com/)
           + _PC Xformer 3.3 demo_ can be downloaded from:
                o [13]Emulators Inc. Website
                  (http://www.emulators.com/CODE>)
                o _PC Xformer 3.3_ can be purchased for US$29.95 (prices
                  may vary) from:
                     # U.S.A.:
                          @ American Technavisions
                            510-352-3787, fax 510-352-9227
                          @ B & C Computervisions
                            408-986-9960, fax 408-986-9968
                          @ Mid Cities Computers
                            310-867-0626, fax 310-920-8933
                          @ Rising Star Computers
                            800-252-2787, fax 513-254-7970
                          @ Toad Computers
                            800-448-8623, fax 410-544-1329
                     # Germany:
                          @ Atari Bit Byter User Club
                            +49 02366-39623 (same for fax)
                          @ KE-Soft
                            +49 06181 87539, fax: +49 06181 83436
                     # United Kingdom:
                          @ Micro Discount
                            +44 0121 353 5730, fax: +44 0121 352 1669
                     # or directly from Emulators Inc.: (USA)
                       14150 N.E. 20th Street, Ste 302, Belleuve, WA
                       98007.
                       1-206-369-5513, fax 1-206-885-5893
                       E-mail: [14]info@emulators.com WWW:
                       [15]http://www.emulators.com
                o _Rainbow_ can be downloaded via FTP from:
                     # FTP:
                       [16]ftp.amug.org/info-mac/app/rainbow-demo-13a.hqx
                     # Chris Lam:
                       E-mail: [17]lamcw@helios.aston.ac.uk
                       WWW:
                       [18]http://www.cityscape.co.uk/users/jx91/rainbow.h
                       tml
                o _Rainbow 95_ can be downloaded via the Web from:
                     # Chris Lam:
                       E-mail: [19]lamcw@helios.aston.ac.uk
                       WWW:
                       [20]http://www.cityscape.co.uk/users/jx91/rainbow.h
                       tml
                o _Atari800_ can be downloaded from:
                     # David Firth:
                       E-mail: [21]david@signus.demon.co.uk
                o _XL-It!_ can be downloaded via the Web from:
                     # Markus Gietzen:
                       E-mail: [22]magi@stud.uni-sb.de
                       WWW:
                       [23]http://www.htw.uni-sb.de/people/mgietzen/atari/
                       xl-it.html
                o _ACE_ can be downloaded via the Web from:
                     # Frank Barrus
                     # E-mail: [24]feb6399@osfmail.isc.rit.edu
                       WWW:
                       [25]http://www.csh.rit.edu/~shaggy/software.html
                o _ST Xformer_ can be downloaded from:
                     # Emulators Inc.: (USA)
                       14150 N.E. 20th Street, Ste 302, Belleuve, WA
                       98007.
                       1-206-369-5513, fax 1-206-885-5893
                       E-mail: [26]info@emulators.com
                o The following programs are available for download on the
                  Internet:
                     # _SIO2PC:_
                       [27]http://www.umich.edu/~archive/atari/8bit/Emulat
                       ors/Peripherals/
                     # _APE:_ [28]http://www.nacs.net/~classics/
                     # _Mule:_
                       [29]http://www.umich.edu/~archive/atari/8bit/Diskut
                       ils/Transfer/mule.arc (Atari)
                       [30]http://www.umich.edu/~archive/atari/8bit/Diskut
                       ils/Transfer/mule.exe (IBM)
                       [31]http://www.umich.edu/~archive/atari/8bit/Diskut
                       ils/Transfer/mule.txt (Documentation)
                     # _Util:_
                       [32]http://www.umich.edu/~archive/atari/8bit/Diskut
                       ils/Transfer/myutil.zip
                     # _S2PC:_ atari/8bit/??? (IBM)
                     # _Virtual Disk Editor:_ atari/8bit/??? (Mac)
                     # _DCM2ATR:_ ? (IBM/Unix)
                     # _DCM2DSK:_
                       [33]http://www.umich.edu/~archive/atari/8bit/Diskut
                       ils/Transfer/dcm2dsk2.zip (IBM)
                       [34]http://www.umich.edu/~archive/atari/8bit/Diskut
                       ils/Transfer/dcm2dsk2.blurb (Documentation)
                     # _ATR2Unix:_ (IBM/Unix)
                     # _XFSIO:_ [35]http://www.insight-media.co.uk/idrun/
               ________________________________________________________
                                           
 -- The End --
 
             AGAIN, _PLEASE_ CHECK OUT THESE OTHER FILES:
                o ATARI 8-BIT FAQ
                o PC XFORMER DOCUMENTS
                o RAINBOW DOCUMENTS
                o ATARI800 DOCUMENTS
                o XL-IT! DOCUMENTS
                o MYDOS DOCUMENTS
                o SIO2PC DOCUMENTS
                o APE DOCUMENTS
             Other Atari 8-bit and emulated Atari 8-bit users can be
             reached on the [36]comp.sys.atari.8bit and
             [37]comp.emulators.misc newsgroups.
               ________________________________________________________
                                           
             _PLEASE add questions and report any mistakes or bugs to me
             as soon as possible!_ Thank you!!!
             [38]kendrick@zippy.sonoma.edu
               ________________________________________________________
 
 References
 
    1. http://www.cis.ohio-state.edu/hypertext/faq/usenet/atari-8-bit/faq/faq.html
    2. mailto:mcurrent@carleton.edu
    3. news:comp.sys.atari.8bit
    4. http://zippy.sonoma.edu/kendrick/nbs/new_and_emu.html
    5. http://zippy.sonoma.edu/kendrick/nbs/new_and_emu.espanol.txt
    6. mailto:kendrick@zippy.sonoma.edu
    7. news:comp.sys.atari.8bit
    8. news:comp.emulators.misc
    9. news:comp.sys.atari.8bit
   10. http://student.uci.agh.edu.pl/~tatar/Atari/Langs/abasic.html
   11. http://www.umich.edu/~archive/atari/8bit/Emulators/Computer/
   12. http://www.emulators.com/
   13. http://www.emulators.com/
   14. mailto:info@emulators.com
   15. http://www.emulators.com/
   16. ftp://ftp.amug.org/info-mac/app/rainbow-demo-13a.hqx
   17. mailto:lamcw@helios.aston.ac.uk
   18. http://www.cityscape.co.uk/users/jx91/rainbow.html
   19. mailto:lamcw@helios.aston.ac.uk
   20. http://www.cityscape.co.uk/users/jx91/rainbow.html
   21. mailto:david@signus.demon.co.uk
   22. mailto:magi@stud.uni-sb.de
   23. http://www.htw.uni-sb.de/people/mgietzen/atari/xl-it.html
   24. mailto:feb6399@osfmail.isc.rit.edu
   25. http://www.csh.rit.edu/~shaggy/software.html
   26. mailto:info@emulators.com
   27. http://www.umich.edu/~archive/atari/8bit/Emulators/Peripherals/
   28. http://www.nacs.net/~classics/
   29. http://www.umich.edu/~archive/atari/8bit/Diskutils/Transfer/mule.arc
   30. http://www.umich.edu/~archive/atari/8bit/Diskutils/Transfer/mule.exe
   31. http://www.umich.edu/~archive/atari/8bit/Diskutils/Transfer/mule.txt
   32. http://www.umich.edu/~archive/atari/8bit/Diskutils/Transfer/myutil.zip
   33. http://www.umich.edu/~archive/atari/8bit/Diskutils/Transfer/dcm2dsk2.zip
   34. http://www.umich.edu/~archive/atari/8bit/Diskutils/Transfer/dcm2dsk2.blurb
   35. http://www.insight-media.co.uk/idrun/
   36. news:comp.sys.atari.8bit
   37. news:comp.emulators.misc
   38. mailto:kendrick@zippy.sonoma.edu
 
 
 


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